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Minderwiz  Minderwiz is offline
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Thanks alec, I hadn't thought of doing it as a book but you've definitely given me an idea there LOL, There just doesn't appear to be an introductory textbook for the newbie.
Top   #31
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wow just discovered this thread, love it.

You should do a book, especially an E-Book even here on AT it would be great
Top   #32
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Primary Directions - Reference background


This section is not essential for the understanding PDs and you don't need to understand it completely, so long as you have the rough idea. There's no calculations and a competent modern Astrologer would understand it without any issue. I've included it simply to give people the opportunity of getting it all in one place, without having to Google some of the terms.

I don't want to go into the mathematics of the method in any detail, for two reasons - firstly they are quite difficult and secondly I'm not sure I have the expertise to do it in a way that would be easy to follow. Indeed one of the reasons the technique has fallen into disuse is the lack of mathematical training for Astrologers LOL - Morin was a professor of Mathematics as well as a doctor of medicine and Astrology was taught in universities.

Imagine that you are outside with a clear view of the horizon, in all directions. Now we stand on the surface of the Earth but for our analysis we are going to make a simplification. We will take the horizon as a circle which has as its centre the centre of the Earth. The centre of the earth is some 6,000 kilometres under our feet but in terms of the solar system, that difference is negligible and we will assume the horizon does indeed form a great circle.

Now we will add two further great circles. The first passes through the North and South points of the Horizon and passing directly over our head. This is the Meridan, so called because the Sun reaches its highest elevation on it, at noon local time. The other circle passes through the East and West points and passes through the meridian at its highest point (zenith). This is known as the prime vertical. We now have a three dimensional model of the Earth in relation to where we stand. Try drawing this out on a piece of paper. The zenith and the nadir (it’s opposite point below the Earth) form the poles of our ‘local’ globe. Some Astrologers make use of the Prime Vertical, but I’m not going to consider it, other than using it to establish our ‘local’ globe.

We are going to add two further great circles. The first is the Equator. Depending on where you live, the equator will intersect the horizon at an angle, unless of course you live on the equator LOL). The equator intersects the horizon at two points, due East and Due West. The angle between equator and horizon means that the poles of our ‘local’ globe are not the same as the North and South poles of the Earth, as defined by its axis of rotation. However the equator intersects the meridian at an angle of 90 degrees.

The very last circle we will add is the Ecliptic – the apparent path of the Sun ‘around’ the Earth. To do this we will extend all our circles outwards into space – into what is called the Celestial Sphere. Earth’s equator, extended outwards, gives us the Celestial Equator. The Ecliptic intersects the celestial equator at an angle (23.5 degrees) and it is this angle (technically called the obliquity of the ecliptic) which gives us our seasons. If the ecliptic coincided with the equator we would live in a perennial equinox. The ecliptic intersects the equator at two points – the vernal and autumnal equinoxes – 0 Aries and 0 Libra using the measuring scale we are familiar with.

The ‘Zodiac’ is a belt extending 9 degrees approx either side of the ecliptic and it is within this belt that the planets move. They can be north or south of the ecliptic (called having latitude) with the exception of the Sun, which by definition always has zero latitude.

The result of these complex relationships is as follows:

1. Planets and stars appear to rise in the east, culminate on the meridian and set in the west
2. 0 Aries and 0 Libra rise due east but all other points on the ecliptic can rise in the north east (Aries through to Virgo) or south east (Libra through to Pisces).
3. As the entire zodiac rises during the day, the rising point (Ascendant) changes position throughout the day.
4. Planetary positions can be measured relative to the celestial equator, in two directions. It’s position along the celestial equator (called its ‘right ascension’ and its position north or south of the celestial equator (called its declination)
5. Planetary positions can also be measured relative to the ecliptic. Along the ecliptic is its sign position. North or south of the ecliptic is its latitude.

Now you don’t need to remember all that, nor are we going to use it for any calculations but what you should get is the idea that calculating planetary movement in this model is by no means easy or straightforward, which again explains why this method is not much used these days and why the Greeks and Arabs were far more numerate than modern Astrologers, even armed with computers.
Top   #33
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Primary Directions - 1


Primary Directions, like Secondary Progressions, are a symbolic system of prediction. They are based on the primary motion of the Earth,- its revolution on its axis in 24 hours. During that time each and every degree of the ecliptic rises in the east, culminates and then sets in the west. 360 degrees in 24 hours gives us an average of not quite 4 minutes per degree. This is a close approximation but it is not exact. Primary Directions are based on the idea that one degree of travel (of a planet or point) is equivalent to one year of life. Given our approximation of 4 minutes per degree this means that 1 year is symbolised by 4 minutes of time. With a lifespan of 90 years, this would mean that all events in our life can be seen in the first 6 hours of planetary movement in our lives.
Clearly an error of 4 minutes in the recording of our birth time could put predictions out by a year or so – therefore much of Traditional Astrology was devoted to ‘rectifying’ the chart (adjusting it for the ‘right’ birth time). A variety of methods were used but by Lilly’s time the method of ‘accidents’ was the dominant. This is simply taking a series of known events in a person’s life and using them to derive the best fit to the primary directions. This method is still used (though mainly for other purposes) and it is important to realise that it only produces a good fit between charts and past events and future predictions depend on that relationship holding into the future.
We all know the analogy of the natal chart as a snapshot in time (and space). Now suppose that not only have you the ‘snapshot’ camera, you also have a video camera which keeps on charting the planets movements. A planet in the tenth House, such as Bill Clinton’s Saturn, will continue to rise and will eventually culminate on the MC. Primary Directions assume that something important will happen in real time based on this symbolic culmination. As Saturn lies some 26 degrees from the MC, we might estimate that something will happen around the age of 26, Mercury will reach the MC about age 31 and the Sun around the Age of 50.
Now if you read the previous post you might realise that things are not going to be quite that simple because Saturn has both latitude in respect of the ecliptic and declination in respect of the celestial equator. Even worse we are averaging planetary motion and some degrees of the ecliptic take longer to ascend than others. Now there are ways of allowing for this but I’m going to take the easy way and use a computer program and thus hide the maths away.
Before I do that I want to introduce two terms. The first is ‘significator’ – here it means that something significant will happen. Ptolemy lists five significators; Ascendant, Sun Moon, MC and the Lot of Fortune. A planet reaching these points by primary motion will trigger something significant. By Lilly’s time all planets were being used as significators, as well as the three points mentioned. So Lilly had 10 significators. Modern users of PDs can and do include the outer planets and nodes as significators
The second term is ‘Promissor’ the planet reaching a significator (or aspecting it) releases the promise of the natal chart, the nature of that promise will depend the nature of the planet and its role in the natal chart. Virtually any planet or point, including the Lots/Parts, could be used as promissors. I will keep to the seven planets and three points as promissors.
William Lilly describes in some detail how he sets up a ‘speculum’ for his subject (a rich merchant). This turns out to be a SPREADSHEET!!!!!!!!!! Sadly not one based in a computer but one based on his desk and using his own PC (his brain) and some tables he does all the necessary calculations. Interestingly he makes use of the House cusps, the Fixed stars and the Terms of planets as promissors. He also uses Kepler’s new aspects, so this is a massive undertaking.
I’m going to use ‘Morinus’ which is a free program available from
http://sites.google.com/site/pymorinus/
and select Download(Binary)
In the next post I’ll use Morinus to identify some PDs for Bill Clinton and also for Nik (214Red) to make some predictions for this year.
Top   #34
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Three Directions for Bill Clinton


Let’s put PD’s into action. The first point to make is that PDs were seen as a ‘range finder’ – they revealed the approximate times at which events could happen. They were not intended to be date specific – further techniques such as Solar and Lunar returns, profections and transits would be used to home in on the likely date and time. Rather than look through 30 odd years of Solar Returns , we only need to look through two or three. Indeed PDs can be accurate to within a few months and sometimes much better than that.

Starting with Bill Clinton, we’ll look at the three directions I mentioned earler, this time using the more accurate calculations of Morinus.

Firstly there is Saturn directed to the MC. This should reveal a significant event in his career. This should not be a particularly good event, given Saturn’s nature. Using Regiomontanus directions, Saturn conjuncts the MC by Primary Direction on 12th November 1974, Did anything ‘bad’ happen to Clinton’s career at that approximate time. I understand that Clinton ran for Congress in 1974 but lost. As US elections are held in November, this PD seems to be within days of the actual event.
The second PD is Mercury to the MC. According to Morinus this event was timed for March 1980. This would be during Clinton’s first term as Governor of Arkansas. Lilly is a little ambivalent on this one, saying that it can indicate preferment through learning but as Mercury is a changeable planet, it can indicate failure through some scandal, lie or misinformation. Clinton lost the governership later that year and it may well be that political issues at that time contributed to the’ fall from grace’.

The last direction I mentioned was Sun to the MC. Morinus times this for January 1999. Lilly describes this direction as making him ‘familiar, known and well accepted of kings, nobles, persons of honour, men of principal, command and trust in the commonwealth’. I’m not sure whether that is a fair description of the US Senate, but it comes a few days before his trial before the Senate began and suggests that he will survive. A month later the impeachment failed.

In two of these three directions, the error appears to be quite small. On the middle one I just don’t have enough information to verify any event. At worst though, it is about six months out.

My next post below will look at the directions for Nik for this year and hopefully she can feed back any comments as the year proceeds LOL.
Top   #35
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i am honoured:-)

i will let you know nearer the time if how exactly things unfold. However in the mean time i have some points from my guides about certain things, so i can likely tell you if certain things resonate

thanks Minderwiz
Top   #36
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Directions for Nik


Well you're more a guinea pig LOL It's not a method I use much but have become increasingly interested in.

Unlike US (and Scottish!) birth certificates, birth certificates in England and Wales do not record a time of birth. Much therefore depends on parents, relatives and friends to make an accurate note. So the given birth time of 00:35 may not be as accurate as the timing for Bill Clinton. So we may expect a greater degree of error in timing through PDs. I’ll therefore extend back a little into 2009 and forward a little into 2011.

It’s important to stress that there needs to be supporting testimony from the Solar Return and transits before we take the prediction as strong.

Ptolemy used only five significators, the Ascendant, MC, Lot of Fortune and the Sun and Moon. During the period from June 2009 and June 2011 the following directions occur to these significators. The interpretations are Lily’s.

08 July 2009 Mercury to the sextile of the Moon. Lilly takes this to mean . Good for employment , especially if you work with accounts, or have a lot to write (such as reports). Renders delight in music, a propensity to travel, and gives much friendship and some estate and fortune (good luck rather than a massive lottery win)

28 February 2010 Sun to the sextile of the Sun Lilly doesn’t mention this one but I’d take it to be good for health, honour and preferment (promotion or bonus?) The Sun also rules the fifth, so there may be knock on benefits in terms of fifth house matters.

08 Dec 2010 Terms of Mars to Ascendant – incites rash actions, has a hand in many idle and wicked matters, a general distemper of the body. As Mars also rules the 7th this might have a negative effect on relationships.

15 April 2011 Trine of Moon to Sun - Good for employment as it brings you to the notice of ‘kings and persons of great quality’ in a favourable way, You may be taking ‘necessary and honourable journeys’ or ‘shall marry a rich wife or be busy in matters of concern to wives and women’ You will also increase your number of friends.’ Now I’m not sure you will marry a ‘ rich wife’ LOL but the involvement in women’s affairs may well be a possibility. Hopefully it will also be good for the job.

09 May 2011 Square of Sun to Lot of Fortune – This isn’t as good as it might first seem because of the square. It might be an expensive period (literally a loss of some of your fortune). That might also (or instead) mean a hard time at work.

There’s a mixture of ‘ups’ and ‘downs’ there. But again I stress the need to look for supporting testimony from the solar returns, etc.

As well as directions to the Ptolemaic ‘hylegical places’ (the five places mentioned above) Lilly also takes directions to other planets. During the period in question we have the following:

17 June 2009 – Terms of Jupiter to Mars – Lilly says Mars is directed (is the significator) for animosity, victory, lawsuits and the estates of ‘brethren’ . Jupiter’s terms will bring a general improvement in these areas, so for the moment Mars should be less of a problem.

2nd August 2009 – Saturn to the sextile of Venus – Venus is directed ‘ for matrimony, love, pleasure , rich ornaments and Jewellery. Saturn is restrictive so whilst this direction is in place things will not look to good in respect to venal matters. In your chart Saturn rules the ninth, tenth and eleventh houses – so Saturn may be acting more as a house ruler than a ‘malefic’. Saturn is still unlikely to be bountiful though.

11 December 2009 – sextile of the Moon to Jupiter – Jupiter is directed for ‘glory, renown and riches (and religion).’ The Moon suggests that this will be a favourable direction, possibly involving another woman or women. The Moon also rules the fourth, so this direction might involve parents, home, and estates (your house if you own one)

1 April 2010 – sextile of Venus to Venus – This ought to be a good indicator for all things venusian. Venus also rules your Ascendant, so it might be good for you directly (good for the body and well being). Venus also rules your sixth so it might be good for pets, servants (people who work under you, if any) and of course it could be illness related, though in that case I’d take it as being beneficial and curative, especially if you suffer from throat problems.

10 August 2010 - Saturn to square of Mars – This is not so good, unless Saturn is playing it’s role as house ruler. All the Mars issues mentioned above are likely to be restricted in some way.

22 December 2010 – Terms of Mars to Venus – This is not so good for matters of Venus and is likely to take over or reduce the effects of the Venus to Venus direction mentioned earlier.

2 Feb 2011 – Saturn to the sextile of Saturn – Saturn is directed for matters relating to ancestors, inheritances, buildings, professions, fears, jealousies and mistrust. That’s a mixed bag and given the sextile is a beneficial aspect. Again Saturn may be acting as a house ruler in which case modest benefits might accrue.

Given that the Moon is the most dignified planet in your natal chart, directions involving the Moon are more likely to work out than the others, followed by those involving Saturn. (though by some distance).

Finally a second repeat of the qualification – before we place a lot of weight on these we would need to consult the returns and transits, especially if there is any significant doubt about the accuracy of the birth time. I will do that later on in the thread that Nik originally posted about predictions for 2010. First though I want to mention profections, and again I’ll use Nik and Bill Clinton.

Incidentally Nik, how accurate is your birth time?
Top   #37
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my mum is adamant thats the time of my birth, as her first child she remembers my birth well:-) up until recently we spoke at 12:35am every birthday morning.

12:35am , colchester, essex.

the note you said about april the 1st is interesting (along with the rest but this stood out) i have had a lousy throat for months, and a few weeks ago a bad cold which i thought the cough was getting better, but past few days got worse, so nice to know it might finally get better soon:-)
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Minderwiz  Minderwiz is offline
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Well I wouldn't argue with your Mum. I know the feeling as I was determined to note the time of my daughter's birth, not just because of my interest in Astrology but because I wanted to remember everything about the event! As my wife was using gas and air during the delivery, I ended up remembering for both of us LOL

With a Taurus Ascendant the throat could well be a vulnerable area, which is why I went for that as a possible issue with this signification.
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i must say each year when we talked the labour would get longer...i remember being in labour with you...
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