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The Hanged Man... death of a Jew in Christian lands?

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The Hanged Man... death of a Jew in Christian lands?


In the thread The Left and The Right Hand, kwaw makes what to me is a highly significant comment - probably significant because of my own views as to the development of the Marseille pattern arising from (amongst other influences) crypto-Jewish sources in the south of France, at a time when to be either Jew or Huguenot could cost either possessions or life.

In that thread, kwaw gives a link to Michael J. Hurst's site showing some striking images of the Hanged Man reflected in Jews in Christian Art.

If one of the major influences on the iconography of this card arises from a more common depiction within Christian (and southern French?) lands of hanging Jews by their feet, then this may be further evidence of crypto-Jewish influence on the specific Marseille style: 'here is what they do to us - beware and keep silent!'.

Its depiction by one leg can of course also be easily accounted for by visual similarity to the twelfth Hebrew letter (Lamed), which would then have 'transformed' the depiction from both tied feet to one to reflect the letter.
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Le Pendu: Glyph of Saturn


The picture of Le Pendu is a counterpoint to Le Pape,
juxtaposing the exaltation of Saturn in Libra (Lamed)
with the exaltation of the Sun in Aries (He), Le Pape.

In Libra the Sun is said to be in its fall or descension,
opposite its exaltation in Aries. Le Pendu enjoys that!
And, of course, since Le Fol (Taw) corresponds with
Saturn... it's so good to see der kinder playing nicely.
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Intersting...seems just about anything is possible when looking at these ancient, conveniently not-written down origins!

One thing I've noticed about the Hanged Man: Noblet and Dodal both depict him with military epaulets (or whatever they're called!) hanging from the shoulders of his tunic...they disapear in the Conver (not familiar with Payen) and neither Hadar nor Jodo-Camoin saw fit to put them back (I mention this just because I assume that those guys know more than me about the origins!)...would this fit in with this theory?
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Le Pendu is giving what we today would call a raspberry...
the epaulets serve as the wiggling fingers in the ears **
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Fulgour
**
Fulgour U crack me up!
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Quote:
Originally Posted by jmd
If one of the major influences on the iconography of this card arises from a more common depiction within Christian (and southern French?) lands of hanging Jews by their feet, then this may be further evidence of crypto-Jewish influence on the specific Marseille style: 'here is what they do to us - beware and keep silent!'.

Its depiction by one leg can of course also be easily accounted for by visual similarity to the twelfth Hebrew letter (Lamed), which would then have 'transformed' the depiction from both tied feet to one to reflect the letter.
What a fascinating train of thought, Jean-Michel! It puts a shiver in my back, of course, but thanks for the images you posted.

Shallott - images are written-down sources, of a different kind. When sufficient iconographic comparison can be made, then a viable conclusion can be reached. This is an intruiging path to follow. Maranes and non-converted Jews made a significant cultural and historical contribution in Southern Europe, including in the countries associated with Tarot. These contributions only started to be fully recognised in the past 30-40 years, thanks to new historians and their plundering of source-material of all type (even in Spain, where Jews were of huge importance during Moorish times, and Maranes continued afterwards, albeit having to tiptoe around the Inquisition, their importance was long neglected).

Another thing here is that it is not that vast contribution that is being depicted here but, if you are right, Jean-Michel, a fight against that contribution. Depending on what we view the Tarot to be showing, it could be a warning by Jews to other Jews, as you have written (keep silent), or a warning against Jewish influence (if you don't behave this will happen to you). You have drawn the parallel with lamed, which argues in favour of the Tarot (or at least some of its imagery) as a Marane tool of teaching...
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Images of the 'Jewish Execution'


The woodcuts illustrated in the 'Jews in Christian Art:
an illustrated history' by Heinz Schreckenberg can be found online here:


Jewish Execution
http://www.geocities.com/cartedatrio...Execution.html

There are also some images from other sources here:

(The head/face on this one looks very similar to me to the head and face of Le Pendu more common in TdM decks)
Hans von Judmann zu Affeking Jewish Execution caricature (1490)
http://www.geocities.com/cartedatrio...cution1490.jpg

Illustration of the Hanged Jew Ulmann from
"Ein Schoen Christlich new Spil vonKinderzucht" (1573)
http://www.geocities.com/cartedatrio...cution1573.jpg

(The following one show Jews being hung by one leg as is more common witht the TdM pattern)
"Jewish Execution" (1607) from the Jewish Encyclopedia
http://www.geocities.com/cartedatrio...cution1607.jpg

Kwaw
(Above images made available online courtesy of Michael Hurst: Thanks Micheal).
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Helvetica
Another thing here is that it is not that vast contribution that is being depicted here but, if you are right, Jean-Michel, a fight against that contribution. Depending on what we view the Tarot to be showing, it could be a warning by Jews to other Jews, as you have written (keep silent), or a warning against Jewish influence (if you don't behave this will happen to you). You have drawn the parallel with lamed, which argues in favour of the Tarot (or at least some of its imagery) as a Marane tool of teaching...
There is also the traditional meaning of this card relating it to self-sacrifice and martyrdom. Who is going to consider the Jews executed martyrs? Certainly not the Christians who executed them.

There is also the problem of a possible association of the female figure of the TdM with Eve. Read within the narrative structure of the anti-jewish polemics of didactic imagery this would subvert the usual narrative to indicate the triumph of Judaism, of the old covenant over the new.

Given that the fool card may also relate to the 'wandering jew' we have a beginning, middle and end card indicating a possible jewish sub-text relating to a narrative of exile and suffering but with final victory and redemption.

Kwaw
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Thankyou again kwaw... and Michael!

What is absolutety fascinating (from my point of view) is that last of the three linked images, in which each hanging Jew is strung by one leg!

Definitely an additional reason to obtain a copy of this book, which I have now wanted to obtain previously simply out of curiosity and personal interest.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by jmd
Thankyou again kwaw... and Michael!

What is absolutety fascinating (from my point of view) is that last of the three linked images, in which each hanging Jew is strung by one leg!

Definitely an additional reason to obtain a copy of this book, which I have now wanted to obtain previously simply out of curiosity and personal interest.
Hi JMD

Just in case you didn't realise note this last one you mention is from the Jewish Encylopedia, not Jews in Christian Art. Nonetheless I would reccomend 'Jews in Christian Art' if you have a personal interest in this area [I was lucky to find my copy secondhand from Oxfam].

In reference to my note on the fool and wandering jew, we may also note that in anti-jewish polemics of the time Jews were taken as representing folly, because of their 'innate foolishness' a trait apparent [to their mockers] because of their failure to accept Jesus of Nazereth as Christ and Saviour.

Also one of the reasons that have been put forward for the placement and numbering of the Moon/Sun, and which I discussed before when discussing the letter qoph in another thread, is a possible relationship to the metonic cycle, the basis of the Hebrew calendar.

Kwaw
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