Originally Posted by l'appeso
thanks for the explanation. could you please suggest me some books on this subject?
Hi, welcome to the forum ...
You could find a lot of opinions in the question if you use the internal "search" (see upper menu) of this forum to topics, in this case for instance "Cary sheet"
so ca. 1500 could be an appropriate date for the TdM style?
Marseille-style-similar-decks are known from ca. 1650 and later.
If you personally recognize the Cary Sheet as a prototype of the Marseille Tarot, you could naturally assume "from c. 1500" .
Originally Posted by l'appeso
here's an explanation
tarocco seems to stem from the verb "taroccare" which comes from latin altercari, to quarrell
(old italian altarocare) hence taroccare, used in the game with the meaning of answering with a stronger card.
nowadays we use the verb "taroccare" and the adjective "tarocco" to describe something unauthentic, or some kind of scam. this is a more modern usage however!
There are likely c. 15 different ideas, how the word Tarot might have developed. I remember, that Ross once made a list of them (where ?), and I also remember, that in the recent times a few others have developed.
Real facts are ...
1. that for the moment two appearances of the word "taroch" have been detected in literary documents of the mid of the 1490s (not clear dates). The interpretation of the meaning of the words is disputed. Between the suggestions is "idiot, fool".
In these works is no relation to playing cards.
You find articles and discussions to this with the search key "taroch Alione" and "taroch Bassano" at google.
2. Three other documents appear in the year 1505, two again as Tarochi (both in Ferrara), a third in Avignon (France) as Taraux. In all 3 cases it's clear, that the documents are about productions of Tarochi or Taraux playing cards. But there's no explanation in the documents, why they are called so in this way.
3. Inside a Satyra, estimated for c.1510 ...
Chiama te: fante; ve, chel te venea.
Io voglio contentarte in tutte cose;
O voi alla crichetta, o alla fluxata,
A rompha, a fluxo, et a le due nascose;
Primera, al trenta, et alla condannata;
A rauso, a cresce el monte; hor apre gli occhi:
Che tua o mia sara questa giornata.
Mancava anchora el gioco de tarocchi,
Chesser mi par tuo pasto: e un altro anchora
Minchion, sminchiata voise dir da sciocchi.
Hor prende qual tu voi, chel fugge lhora.
Here it appears between other games, so its definitely the game
4. The next, I think, might be from 1512 and it appears inside a theater play. The play is given in September 1512 twice, once in Mantova and for a second time in Verona.
Even in games the use of the barbaric names has prevailed:
"Quid illud, quod in ludis quoque barbaris verbis utuntur?".
Petrarca had designated with the name of game of the Triumphs the painted cards, without doubt an excellent choice, since that term referred to the warlike victory:
"Franciscus enim ille meus Petrarcha picturatarum cartarum ludo Triumphorum
nomen induxerat (9), optime quidem, quod in eo veluti bellica victoria spectatur".
But now with Barbaric rite, without some relationship with the Latin, they call it taroch
: "Barbaro ritu, taroch
nunc dicunt nulla latina ratione".
But then why that game is not called not less improperly bachiach?
"Sed cur non minus improprie bachiach?".
So there's some critique, that Taroch is not a Latin word. An earlier used name "Ludo triumphorum" is taken as excellent. Ludo triumphorum or similar names appear frequently during 15th century in playing card contexts.