The Boiardo Tarocchi poem on its way out of some Italian dust


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Huck  Huck is offline
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First analyzes


Wonderful, that this poem had some "English form", thanks to Ross and Marco again.

Again: I repeat some basic assumptions for the moment: Boiardo had fallen in love in April 1469, our biographical attempt (not totally completd)

http://trionfi.com/0/h/02/

reports:

"January 1469 - Boiardo spends a week in Ferrara as the guest of Duke Borso during an entertainment for the Emperor Frederick III, who is at a visit in Italia. Frederick III sells many titles at Ferrara. The 19-year-old Ludovico Lazzarelli got the title "poetus laureatus" from the Emperor, likely a little later in Venice and likely for a poem to a knight tournament, that took place in Padova in the year 1466; Lazzarelli is the poet of a poem that uses motives of the Mantegna-Tarocchi as illustrations. The fame building moment for the young Lazzarelli might have given some impressions for the some years older Boiardo, whose poetical experiments were in this moment likely not similar succesful. Lazzarelli is suspected by us to have had influence on the construction of the Mantegna Tarocchi, by us estimated for the year 1475; the coventional theories to the Mantegna Tarocchi suggest a date around 1465.
April 1469 - Boiardo meets Antonia di Bartolomeo Caprara (b. 1451), a girl of Reggio, at Sigismondo's court and later dedicates to her his sequence of 180 lyrics in three books titled Amorum Libri, first published as Sonnetti e Canzone (Songs and Sonnets) in 1499. He also addresses a mysterious Rosa and also two other ladies, as they are confidants in his love for Antonia---they are said to be Marietta and Ginvra Strozzi, the former being the wife of Teofilo Calgnino. The lyrics are sonnets, various canzoni, different madrigals and other lyrics of perculiar metrical structure. The third book of the Canzoniere has at it's close a mention of the summons to Rome in 1471 to attend to Borso in his coronation as Duke.
The Boiardo Tarocchi poem has 21 trumps and a Fool - when the marriage of Galeazzo Maria invented the feature of the "21 trumps + Fool" (in June 1468), Boiardo was able to imitate it since then. The Boiardo Tarocchi is unusual and has its focus on matters of love (for instance is jealousy a suit), so the poem is suitable to somebody just fallen in love, which seems to be a fact in the case of Boiardo just in this month. The choice of the Milanese system (with 21 trumps + Fool) would be logically a polite gesture against Milan, which is just likely in this moment, but not 3 monthes later, cause ... "


Alright, the girl is 18, Boiardo is at least 28 (the precise date of his birth is not known, only suspected). We've the approach of an older man to the younger girl - as very often in this time. We've to remind the other "older man, younger woman"-stories in the Trionfi fabrication processes:

Leonello d'Este - Bianca Maria Visconti: Leonello is 18 years older
1.1. 1441 - cards play a role
Francesco Sforza - Bianca Maria Visconti : Francesco is 24 years older.
October 1441 - Cary-Yale (perhaps) produced
Filippo Maria Visconti - Maria of Savoyen: Filippo is 36, the bride quite young.
cards play possibly a role
Niccolo d'Este - Parisina: Paisina is 13 or 14, Niccolo quite grown-up
cards play a role
and some others

So it's a common model and one should assume, that some courting rules had been developed for such cases.

A didactical process: The loving man has to explain the world and give a good impression with all his acquired knowledge.

... and the Tarocchi poem plays a role: Boiardo notes about 45 or 50 classical persons in his short tercets, a lot of stuff to talk about and to explain, who's who and who did what. A complex pogram with poetical background ideas of course. Part of the approach is the "intellectual education of the younger girl by the older man".

Boiardo uses a basic trick - as already explained - with the 22 special cards (21 trumps + 1 foolish cards):

One tercet for begin (Fool, but it starts with World):

* Italian text
"Mondo, da pazzi vanamente amato,
Portarti un fol su l'asino presume,
Ché i stolti sol confidano in tuo stato."

* English translation
"World, you are vainly loved by the fools,
And a fool thinks he can bring you on his donkey,
Because fools only trust your state. "

The translation is rough, but good enough for a first overview (for instance: there is only one "fol" in the Italian version, but Fool is 3x translated - "stolto" means "stupid", "pazzo" means "crazy", so the translation is not wrong, but somehow this 3-fold foolness must be expressed.

We've "Mondo" and we've "fol" - so we meet 2 Tarot card names. And one (Matto, Fool) is usually at begin of the row and the other (World) is usually at the end of the row. This can't happened accidently, this was intention (says the poetical analyzer's instinct), that's part of the poet's trick.

Naturally one should not necessarily read the poem in line and row, but jump to the end and there is:

Trump 21 - Fortezza (Strength)

Italian text
Fortezza d'animo in Lucretia liete
Exequie fece: per purgar sua fama
Se uccise, e all'offensor tese atra rethe,
---
Dando exempio a chi 'l nome e l'honore ama.


English translation
Inner strength make happy the death of
Lucretia: to clean her fame
She killed herself, and she prepared for the offender a dark net.
---
She gave an example to those who love their own name and honour.

The first one should note, that the last word of the poem (not considering the final sonnett) is "ama" - which has something to do with "love" ... one shouldn't overlook such details, that's poetical intention.

Perhaps it's puzzling, why there are 4 lines instead of 3 - This repeats in all 5 chapters, each has an additional final line.

... and with some experience in these matters, what poets do and what they love, one can now add the 5 final lines and receives that:

Ché mal se fugge quel che 'l ciel dispone
Con gli ecclipsi soi, segni e comete
Che domitor del mondo un tempo forno
E fe' Pasiphe innamorar de un Toro
Dando exempio a chi 'l nome e l'honore ama.

Because it is difficult to avoid what has been decided by heaven.
With its eclipses, signs and comets.
Who once were the rulers of the world.
And it made Pasiphe fall in love with a Bull.
She gave an example to those who love their own name and honour.

---
well, it's not in rhyme, but I think, this was intention, too. Now - I'm not an Italian - but is this a correct formulated follow-up of Italian sentences, Marco? At least it can be imagined from the English translation - it makes sense. The idea to involve Pasiphae inclusive her toro is surprizing, but not impossible. Lines 1-2-3 seem to be connectable, 4-5 also.

... :-) Isn't it nice? Isn't that a really European formula? Pasiphae falling in love with her bull ... just repeating that, what her mother-in-law Europe also did once somewhere at the Phoenician coast? Our lovely Tarocchi poem in European dimensions. And all this in the small head of young poet Boiardo?

... I've to drink something on our all European Boiardo translation .. .-) made by Italian, French, German forces ... and on internet, which made it possible ...

.... okay, Golden Sun Kentucky Bourbon .. nice name, let's invite America to the joy. Now:

TIMOR un'alma tien tanto dubiosa
GELOSIA un vero amor non po smarrire,
SPERANZA unita tien co `l corpo un'alma
AMORE, un che *** te cerchi bon stato,
Mondo, da pazzi vanamente amato.

FEAR keeps a soul is such doubts
JEALOUSY cannot spoil a true love.
HOPE sometimes keeps a body joint with
LOVE, if someone wants to be in good relations with you,
World, you are vainly loved by the fools.

Ahem, .. that are the beginning lines. Possible in Italian, Marco?

And together, does it work? Marco?

TIMOR un'alma tien tanto dubiosa
GELOSIA un vero amor non po smarrire,
SPERANZA unita tien co `l corpo un'alma
AMORE, un che *** te cerchi bon stato,
Mondo, da pazzi vanamente amato
Ché mal se fugge quel che 'l ciel dispone
Con gli ecclipsi soi, segni e comete
Che domitor del mondo un tempo forno
E fe' Pasiphe innamorar de un Toro
Dando exempio a chi 'l nome e l'honore ama.

----

FEAR keeps a soul is such doubts
JEALOUSY cannot spoil a true love.
HOPE sometimes keeps a body joint with
LOVE, if someone wants to be in good relations with you,
World, you are vainly loved by the fools.
Because it is difficult to avoid what has been decided by heaven.
With its eclipses, signs and comets.
Who once were the rulers of the world.
And it made Pasiphe fall in love with a Bull.
She gave an example to those who love their own name and honour.

... well, we've to consider a little bit the actual state of Ferrara and this means, that there is an astrologer currently around, who develops actively the picture program at the Palazzo Schifanoia. "Eclipses, signs and comets, which rule the world" are momentary in full fashion there.

Actually one might assume, that they started with April, and that would mean, they started with Taurus - see toro and Pasiphae. And the whole is filled with Venus and her features, and that are lots of young people in very good mood and Boiardo is in the mid between them.

http://www.wga.hu/cgi-bin/search.cgi...ime=any&school

Pasiphae I can't detect.

Good, okay, this was my suspicion about the first and last lines. Now back to the content of trump 21:

Italian text
Fortezza d'animo in Lucretia liete
Exequie fece: per purgar sua fama
Se uccise, e all'offensor tese atra rethe,
---
Dando exempio a chi 'l nome e l'honore ama.


English translation
Inner strength make happy the death of
Lucretia: to clean her fame
She killed herself, and she prepared for the offender a dark net.
---
She gave an example to those who love their own name and honour.


And there we've another name of a well known Tarot card (in card 0, we had Fool and World):

Fortezza (Strength)

and another name, I hope you see it:

FAMA

Well, Fama is not part of the Tarot as you know it usually, but it is part of the Minchiate. And in 1469 Minchiate exists as an experiment of unknown content, as documented by a letter from Luigi Pulci to Lorenzo de Medici. And - as we know - in the later Minchiate is the highest trump: Fama, so it could exist in Boiardo's time as a highest trump "somewhere" - likely in Florence. And Boiardo likely would know that.

So we meet in the first and last of Boiardo's 22 special cards poems 4 Tarot card motifs and now we've the question to answer, what the poet is talking about.

Fool = Matto - usually card 0
World = usually card 21 or highest trump, but not in Minchiate
Fama = highest card in Minchiate

Fortezza doesn't hit the mark, it isn't either at begin or end of the row and so it looks deplaced. What's in the mind of Boiardo?

Fortezza, after Milan got 22 cards (which happened short before the poem, according the basic assumptions), got itself once the number 11, which it still has today.
The natural situation in Ferrara should have been,that they didn't know what to do with their cards, when Milan changed the deck. Perhaps the whole intention of Boiardo with his occupation with this deck goes in the direction to decide, what the next Ferrarese deck should look like. Should they also raise the numbers of cards? Which row the figure should have? Should they merely imitate the Milanese version?
Perhaps not very deciding questions, but things which poets, whose highest enjoyment it was to see their duke happy, might take serious, when the duke took it serious.

Well: Fortezza has the number 11 later and the Fool had the number 11, earlier - see 5x14-theory. The original version of the 14 Bembo cards counted from 1-14, not 0, 1, 2, 3 etc. And in the row of 1-14 the fool had position 11 - as part of the 3 bad things: Stupidity (Fool), treason (Hanging Man) and death.

That must have been the intellectual connection, which made Boiardo place this quartett of 4 figure on the starting and ending card of the sequence.

Enough for today. Boiardo the European ... rather unexspected ... .-) Boubon makes sleepy.
Top   #11
DoctorArcanus  DoctorArcanus is offline
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DoctorArcanus 

Quote:
Originally Posted by Huck

Ché mal se fugge quel che 'l ciel dispone
Con gli ecclipsi soi, segni e comete
Che domitor del mondo un tempo forno
E fe' Pasiphe innamorar de un Toro
Dando exempio a chi 'l nome e l'honore ama.

Because it is difficult to avoid what has been decided by heaven.
With its eclipses, signs and comets.
Who once were the rulers of the world.
And it made Pasiphe fall in love with a Bull.
She gave an example to those who love their own name and honour.

---
well, it's not in rhyme, but I think, this was intention, too. Now - I'm not an Italian - but is this a correct formulated follow-up of Italian sentences, Marco? At least it can be imagined from the English translation - it makes sense. The idea to involve Pasiphae inclusive her toro is surprizing, but not impossible. Lines 1-2-3 seem to be connectable, 4-5 also.
Huck, thanks to your observations I corrected the first and last Trump. Those translation need a good revision....

The verses you propose could read:

Ché mal se fugge quel che 'l ciel dispone
Con gli ecclipsi soi, segni e comete
Che domitor del mondo un tempo forno
E fe' Pasiphe innamorar de un Toro
Dando exempio a chi 'l nome e l'honore ama.

Because it is difficult to avoid what has been decided by heaven.
With its eclipses, signs and comets.
Which once were the rulers of the world.
And it made Pasiphe fall in love with a Bull.
Giving an example to those who love their own name and honour.

The first two work perfectly togehter.
It's a bit strange how the suject shifts from Which to "it" in 3 and 4.
The last verse actually has no explicit subject: so it can fit with almost anything. My previous subject "she" is not explicitly there.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Huck

TIMOR un'alma tien tanto dubiosa
GELOSIA un vero amor non po smarrire,
SPERANZA unita tien co `l corpo un'alma
AMORE, un che *** te cerchi bon stato,
Mondo, da pazzi vanamente amato.

FEAR keeps a soul is such doubts
JEALOUSY cannot spoil a true love.
HOPE sometimes keeps a body joint with
LOVE, if someone wants to be in good relations with you,
World, you are vainly loved by the fools.

Ahem, .. that are the beginning lines. Possible in Italian, Marco?

And together, does it work? Marco?

TIMOR un'alma tien tanto dubiosa
GELOSIA un vero amor non po smarrire,
SPERANZA unita tien co `l corpo un'alma
AMORE, un che *** te cerchi bon stato,
Mondo, da pazzi vanamente amato.

FEAR keeps a soul is such doubts
JEALOUSY cannot spoil a true love.
HOPE sometimes keeps a body joint with a soul
LOVE, someone who wants to be in good relations with you,
World, you are vainly loved by the fools.

Here I corrected LOVE. I think 1 and 4 are a little strange because "tanto" (such) and "un" (someone) seem to be waiting for something that was in the next verse and is no more there.

Marco
Top   #12
Huck  Huck is offline
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Well, perhaps we find some other lines of reading, whrich cross the text.

One of the aspects of the poem: ""Men are pigs." ... :-) At least they are in Boiardo's text reserved for the bad things, and women for the good.

Trumps 1-3-5-7-9-11-13-5-17-19 are male figured (central person) and this row starts with the "bad expressions",

the trumps 2-4-(6)-8-10-12-14-16-18-20 are female figured (and start with "good expressions"), whereby 6 is not recognizable in its gender ... perhaps with the reason, that 6 is the number of the Lovers card and Boiardo identified himself at this position - on the "female side" - which he "objectively" is, cause the whole seems to be "commission" to give women some arguments for their next debates with some men ... :-) .

It adds to that what was already clear from other sources: Early Trionfi decks were "women-business", not for men.

So there are pairs, 10 pairs, male female. What in the Sola-Busca Tarocchi was expressed by left and right turned bodies, was reached in the Boiardo by different gender. Literary pair-description was used by Guarino already in the 20's and Guarino was the intellectual master of Ferrara, so the whole is local genre and not totally new.
Then it seems, that the 5 first pairs were dominated by love matters, the later 5 pairs are more engaged in questions of general life and death, more serious. And it might be incorpated a line of age ... 19-20 is time=age and oblivion. So 1-2 should indicate a "young theme" etc..

So maybe Boiardo got the female "commission" to say good things about women ... well, perhaps it was his own courting idea.

The successful comparition of the opposing pairs in the Boiardo-poem should lead to catch up the Sola-Busca, if there the opposing pairs (1-2, 3-4, etc also have a "relation with specific content". Perhaps this leads to more recognition of this deck ... it shouldn't be impossible, that there also a poem existed once, likely lost forever, but who knows.

Well, the analyses haven't finished.
Top   #13
Huck  Huck is offline
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Huck 

Well ... I've some ideas.

The sonnett is a form loved by poets. I think, it was used first (?) used in Italy, but I'm not an expert, indeed a little stupid in this question, so I'll carry it with patience, when I'm corrected.
It were the Italian, who had the favour with the 4x14 deck, not others (this I do know with a little more precision - in Germany I know of 4x13 and 4x12 and only once, rather late of 5x14, Master P.M. in Cologne around 1500).

http://trionfi.com/0/j/d/masterPW/index.html

A sonnett has 14 lines ... in a 4-4-3-3 form

Should Boiardo have been the first, who had the idea to combine poetical forms with card playing? Unlikely. Perhaps that had a tradition.

But we know of Boiardo as a single attempt. So let's assume, it was he who had this following normal poetical idea:

1st line = King
2nd line = Queen
3rd line = Knight
4th line = Page
---
5th line = 10 - often painted special, in Germany as a banner
6th line = 9
7th line = 8
8th line = 7
----
9th line = 6
10th line = 5
11th line = 4
---
12th line = 3
13th line = 2
14th line = Ace - special painted ... it would be the final sentence

We have a sonnett at the beginning of the Boiardo poem, we can make a test:

King: Four passions of the soul, milady,
Queen: Are forty cards in this game.
Knight: The lesser gives place to the worthier,
Page: And their meaning gives them their suit.

10: Each suit also has four figures,
9: Each of which I place in the due role,
8: With twenty and one triumphs; and in the meanest place
7: Is a fool, because the fool the world adores.

6: Love, hope, jealousy and fear
5: Are the passions, and the cards have a tercet
4: So as not to leave the player in error.

3: The number in the verses runs:
2: One, two, three, ending at the highest;
1: Now it remains for you to find the art of the game.


King: "Four passions of the soul, milady,"
### Well, if we would know, who the "milady" is, that would be nice ... Naturally the first line has in all sonnetts an important function as the introduction of all, what follows ... but look at the first word, Boiardo is really funny, he says "Four ...
and now a jump to the 5th line, which opens the secon part with also 4 lines, and what do ws see: "Four ...
and another jump, now to the middle line of the first tercet and Boiardo says there "tercet", which is an expression "three"
and now the final at the middle of the second tercet: "one, two, three"

... and what has Boiardo told you, indirectly of course? Boiardo said: "A sonnett has a 4-4-3-3 scheme ... "and what he thought, was " ... and you, dear reader, should consider this carefuly, if you've any interest to understand that here", and with some certain mockery he adds in the poem "Now it remains for you to find the art of the game".

Jumping now to the end of the poem, final line of the Sonnetto excusato, then there's the excuse for his mockery called: "I excuse myself for learning from nature" ... which likely means a lttle arrogantly as poets occasionally are: "I know, that this is difficult. "

Alright, this was about the first word and its context.

Alright, but the king has a whole sentence:
"Four passions of the soul, milady,"
"Quattro passion de l'anima signora" in Italian language, the "signora" is really at the end, that means, there, where the Queen line takes its start and the following is:
"Are forty cards in this game."
Sounds like a boring statement, but it's the Queen line and we should think about it:
the King has a "Four" in his line
the Oueen has a "40" in her line ...
so what Boiardo is talking about? There are 4 Aces and Ace means 1 and 4x1="4"
and there are 4 tens in the game and 4x10="40" .... now in these old games is it a somewhat paradox and unnecessarily complicating rule, that two suits run from from 1-10 and two others from 10-1. And there is the suggestion done, that this should be interpeted in the way, that two suits had been considered "female" and 2 others "male" ... so I do think, that Boiardo just thought about this, when he put his careful play in the way as he did it, he had considered each word and not with stupidity. 4:40, King and Queen ...
well, NORMALLY in Tarot Emperor has the number 4 and and the Empress 3 and in normal cardplay the King counts again 4 and the Queen again 3 and .... 4-4-3-3 is the sonnett scheme.

So how one should interpret a sonnett generally? In this way perhaps: Two male 4 line structures, and then follows the reply in a double 3 line version, which normally contain the more funny and witty sentences.

Now the Knight: "The lesser gives place to the worthier", yes, true, the knight is lesser than the King and has natural reasons for a little Gelosia.
And the Page: "And their meaning gives them their suit." Anybody takes his position, please.

Now that the important things have been said:

10: Each suit also has four figures,
9: Each of which I place in the due role,
8: With twenty and one triumphs; and in the meanest place
7: Is a fool, because the fool the world adores.

Quattro figure ha ogni color ancora,
che ai debiti suo' offici tutte loco,
con vinti et un trionfo; e al più vil loco
è un folle, poi che 'l folle el mondo adora.

"Four figures has each suit still" might be better, cause "10" means the many, and these are the people and they say: "Four fígures are above us .."
"which I honour in their position on their place" or similar "with 21 trumps ..." here says Boiardo something really relevant: there are the people on the position 1-10 (and they are "low") and there are the rulers (the 4 courts (and these are "high") and then between them are the trionfo (shouldn't it be trionfi?) ...
Most people, at least between Tarot friends, think, that the Major Arcana are the "major" things ... no, Boiardo here clearly states, that the Trionfi are only the matters between "people and rulers".
Think about the game: Trumps doesn't count much when you play Tarot. The points have Kings, queens, a little bit also the knights and the pages, but actually these both are already a little poor and only with luck they get a trick. The King has 4 points and the player has very good chances to get them home. 14 cards of each suit are in the game, so likely in most cases this works well. The Queen (only 3 points) still has good chances, much less the knight (only 2). And the page (1 point) is almost hopeless to do anything.
The fool and the World are mentioned at position "7", that's card seven, and that's the chariot in Tarot as we know it ... the triumphal chariot. Fool and World triumph ... yes, of course, in the game the Fool card and the World (beside the magician) have 4 points, as the kings have.

Now look at the position 8, that's normally Justice in Tarot, and the 21 Triumph cards have the function to create a little Justice on the card table.

Now turning to position 6, which is opening the tercet: "Love ... " and that we do know as card number 6.

6: Love, hope, jealousy and fear
5: Are the passions, and the cards have a tercet
4: So as not to leave the player in error.

3: The number in the verses runs:
2: One, two, three, ending at the highest;
1: Now it remains for you to find the art of the game.

: ... well, what I wanted to say: "Now it remains for you to find the art of the game." It's late here.

Just adding. I've made a few pages:

http://trionfi.com/0/h/11/
http://trionfi.com/0/h/12/
http://trionfi.com/0/h/13/
http://trionfi.com/0/h/14/
http://trionfi.com/0/h/15/
http://trionfi.com/0/h/16/
http://trionfi.com/0/h/17/
http://trionfi.com/0/h/18/
http://trionfi.com/0/h/19/
http://trionfi.com/0/h/20/
http://trionfi.com/0/h/21/
http://trionfi.com/0/h/22/
http://trionfi.com/0/h/23/
http://trionfi.com/0/h/24/

Perhaps helpful, when analysing
Top   #14
Huck  Huck is offline
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There is one bigger insecurity about the dating of the Boiardo Tarocchi in the year 1469 ...
In the first line of the "sonnett at the beginning" the poet opens:

"Four passions of the soul, milady, ..." is translated (Ross and Marco)

"Quattro passion de l'anima signora" is the original

and Jane Cocker translated once (alternatively)

"Four passions of the Lady soul" ... but corrected herself to another version similar to the above version.

Well, this passage is crucifying fotr the interpretation and the dating. We look in this sentence in the scene of Boiardo and his female commissioner. He calls her "Signora".
When she was his 18-years-old object of desire (as I earlier suggested for the dating of April 1469, would Boiardo addressed her with "Signora"? Do we know enough about the 15th century use of "Signora" to exclude it? No. But is it likely? Shouldn't it be logical, that Boiardo would have chosen "Signorina?
"Signora" as honouring expression doesn't seem totally impossible, even when this object was not married ... but the whole situation gives some doubt about the correct identification of the date.

A second good opportunity for the production of the Tarocchi poem would have been Boiardo addressing the signora Leanore of Aragon, since her marriage 1473 with Ercole d'Este "Signora of Ferrara" (although a second possible address would have been "Duchessa" after the marriage).
Boiardo had the mission to accompany Eleonore from Naples to Ferrara as part of the courting delegation. As "responsible poet" he had natural function to describe a few things, also if the desire existed to form a Trionfi deck according to the situation, as we saw it at 1.1.1441 and later in October 1441 for Bianca Maria Visconti and we see it later repeat for Bona of Savoy in 1468.

The house of Aragon (kingdom of Naples) gave 1473 - 1476 three daughters to marriage and from the later two marriages (1475 and 1476) we know of triumphal activities.

1. G6. [1m.] Leonora of Naples, *22.6.1450, +11.10.1493, bur Ferrara; m.Ferrara 3.7.1473 Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara and Modena (*26.10.1431 +15.6.1505)

2. ? Camilla (illegitime) married Costanzo Sforza 1475 - famous by wedding text book with Trionfi pictures as Trionfo della Fama

3 G7. [1m.] Beatrice of Naples, *Capua 14.9./Naples 16.11.1457, +Ischia 23.9.1508; 1m: 1476 Matthias Hunyady, King of Hungary and Bohemia (*23.2.1443 +6.4.1490); 2m: 4.10.1490 (div 7.4.1500) King Wladislaw II of Poland and Hungary (*1.3.1456 +13.3.1516)
At the marriage a Petrarca Trionfi (including Trionfo della Fama)

So Boiardo's poem might have been something, which accompanied the marriage of Eleanore.
Top   #15

Huck  Huck is offline
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Reconsidering Pro and Contra:

We've 5 times Trionfo della Fama in relation to Naples and Aragon:

1423: festivity in Naples with Alfonso of Naples , a great elephant is involved (the elephant is the Fama animal, cause Fama has a trumpet.

1443: The figure of Fama has the final position (which is most important in the Trionfi) at the Trionfo of Alfonso d'Aragon, who conquered the city in 1442.

1475: Trionfo della Fama for Camilla marriage (Aragon with Sforza from Pesaro).

1476: Petrarca's Trionfi for marriage between Aragon daughter and King of Hungary

1492: Another Trionfi della Fama, now as "indoor" festivity in Naples. The description makes assume, that this was very very similar to the Tarot sequence.

Now the Boiardo Tarocchi poem places Fool with World on position "0", and a combination of Fortezza - Fama on the position 21 or "highest trump".

Which would express the idea: The old Trionfi-sequence with Fool and World was at the beginning and a little foolish, but now a new wonderful future opens with the marriage of Ercole and Eleanore und the true reigning card is now a combination of Aragonese Fortezza and Fama.

The whole poem is reigned by the weakness of the men and the fame of the women ... appropriate when a (lower) duke marries a (higher) king's daughter.

And the marriage of Eleanor and Ercole is still free of the Fama-symbolism, which is open and strong at the other both marriages.

It was a common procedure, that a reigning head did send diplomats (often poets) to a foreign court and that the poets had the function to make a great speech there and give a good impression and in the final result the marriage was concluded (this is already reported for Petrarca in Paris 1360).

This might have been the logical function for the Boiardo Tarocchi poem.
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Just a note or two and perhaps dates


I just took Marco (Dr. Arcanus' translations) and had been thinking about them...

HOPE sometimes keeps a body joint with a soul
LOVE, someone who wants to be in good relations with you,
World, you are vainly loved by the fools.

In both translations, the "body joint with a soul" seemed to me to be

"body joined with a soul" or "body joined with

"Love"
*********************************
FEAR keeps a soul is such doubts
JEALOUSY cannot spoil a true love.
HOPE sometimes keeps a body joint with
LOVE, if someone wants to be in good relations with you,
World, you are vainly loved by the fools.
Because it is difficult to avoid what has been decided by heaven.
With its eclipses, signs and comets.
Who once were the rulers of the world.
And it made Pasiphe fall in love with a Bull.
She gave an example to those who love their own name and honour.
***********************************

In the dating for Boiardo, since he lived a long life and is honored by both Duke Borso remotely and more closely is allied with Duke Ercole, I sometimes look more for any reference to "Hercules" or if possible, really significant events in his life.

A suggestion of possible alternate datings of significance:

1471 (March) Duke Borso dies and is succeeded by brother Ercole

(Not 1474, when Boiardo was surviving an attempted poisoning and family matters, when he had to divide the inheritance between the family)

1476 (January) Boiardo keeps a room in the ducal palace in Ferarra. In September he compiles his Epgrammata celebrating Ercole's victory over his nephew Niccolo, Leonello's son, during an attempted coup.

When I glance through an account that speaks of Duchess Elenora at this time, she is actually glimpsed weeping at the sight of the nephew who had been decapitated and then reclothed to make it seem his death and public funeral one of honor to the family name.

Incidently, there's a few more interesting notes about Ercole in Aragon, which I'll post separately to the I Triumphi group and add separately here.

Cerulean
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At Naples as companions of King Alfonso's son Ferrando...


...whose tutor was Bartolomeo Facio, Ecrole and his younger brother (Sigismondo) would have had the opportunity of benefit from a humanist education: the court of Naples, even more than the court of Leonello d'Deste in Ferarra, attracted many distinguished scholars...

By 1479 Boiardo was also starting to work on the epic Orlando Innormorato and develop his characterizations of Amor, mainly with comic invention, for the amusement of the recovering Ercole...whose political wiles and warmongering had brought retribution and Papal wrath upon Ferrara

1417 - inventory of King Alfonso compiled in Spain includes Catalan, Castilian and Aragonese, many in French, including a Bible. Alfonso inherited a library from Robert of Anjou that was lost in a shipwreck in 1421.

Alfonso's device (similar to a court of arms/insignia) was the chair normally depicted with flames issuing to it--it was the 'siege perilous' from Arthurian romance where only Sir Galahad could sit in a chair without being consumed.

It is said Alfonso's pretention to the duchy of Milan, encouraged by Borso d"Este and the last of the Visconti, Duke Filippo Maria, this may have been a reference to a throne traditionally occupied by a succession of Visconti called Galeazzo, the Italian rendering of Galahad.

1433 - Aurispa was in Naples and Pier Candido Decembrio...King Alfonso knight of the Order of Golden Fleece by Duke Phillip (mentioned but not dated; I got the date from a Duke Phillip reference off of wikipedia).

1435-46-Lorenzo Valla as secretary to the king produced books that included De rebus a Ferdinando getis.

Panormita, who dedicated "Dicta ac facta Alfonsi regis" to the king, was partially enacted in Naples. Alfonso borrowed Panormita's copy of the Vitruvius and the most durable monument to the king remains the Triumphal Arch as the entrance of the Castel Novo (which is a grouping of Italian sculptural works that include Francesco Laurana).

Bartolomeo Facio wrote his De viribus illustrubus and De reus gestis regis Alphonsi

1450 -Angelo Candido Decembrio left Ferarra after Leonello's death and resided in Naples.

1456 -Teordoro Gaza remarked how the King liked to have a book read to him in the library together with a few intimates after supper.

Bartolomeo Facio wrote Alfonso had the oil paintings of Flanders from Van Eyk and Rogier van der Weyden in his De Viribus Illustribus

Ercole is said to have successfully integrated in the Naples court as trained in jousting, military soldiering, and likely to have known enough Latin to suggesting criticism Baptista Guarino for a translated play of Plautus.

1452 - Ercole is supposed to be able to read Italian, French and probably Spanish. He was mainly cited for his examples of jousting and military prowess in Naples: in 1452, when Frederick III visited, Ercole and Sigismondo and Ferdinand were participants in the jousting events; in two other citations, it's feats of arms or a courteous courtly joust for 'love of a lady' with another count.

1453 - Ercole's positions of honor included witnessing the king's will

1458 - Ercole was Governor of Capitanata when the old king Alfonso died; but by then the childhood friendship with Ferdinando was less friendly or Ercole at least was 'slighted' or not as favored...his connections with Ferarra and his work as a contedottiere increased. Ercole abandoned the Aragonese cause and sided with the Angevins.

1460 - Battle of Sarno, Ercole seized the cloak of King Ferdinando (? error in Herculean Ferarra book?) as 'he was fleeing back to Naples.

Ercole and Angevins suffered a reverse at the Battle of Troia, so Ercole went to service of soldiering in Ferarra...

1462 - Ercole and Sigismond recalled by Duke Borso and made respectively the governors of Modena and Reggio..this takes us up to

1471 (March) Duke Borso dies and is succeeded by brother Ercole

It shows a little of the backdrop of Boiardo's continued development of courtly love and romance set in Arthurian backdrops.. and as he became closer to Duke Ercole and the children of Elenora and Ercole, he also had more material to draw from...famed Isabella, ill-fated Beatrice and Alfonso. (Compared to the North Wind and Diamond-casted Ercole, brilliant eldest daughter Isabella, ill-fated second daughter Beatrice...sometimes son Alfonso is a paler and less interesting personality) Boiardo's continued service and long-lived fidelity includes the honor of being named the governor of Modena in 1480--remember he was also count of Scandiano as well as two other districts).

The two texts that I drew this from were the newer edition of Orlando Innaomorato by Charles Stanley Ross and Herculean Ferarra by Thomas Tuohy. If more detail and citations are of interest, I'll include them in a post to Triumphi in a week or two.

This is just a rough timeline that might be of general interest to some of the general backdrop to Ferarra.

Cerulean
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We've no Charlemain association in the poem ... Boiardo's fixation on that theme started 1476.
Trionfi cards were often associated to marriages, so 1473 is the logical date.

The address "signora" seems to indicate, that Eleanor is not duchessa.

Hercules is mentioned indirectly in Trump 13, "Deception", as victim of the deceptive dying Nessus

http://trionfi.com/0/h/17/

... as male figure he's naturally connected to bad circumstances.

It's not a splendid Hercules then as one might suspect in a "courting poem" ... but Ercole is not a splendid Hercules, as he was crippled by his wound in the Ferrarese/Florence war 1467 ... and he is 19 years older than the bride, who isn't too young herself (23).

Boiardo plays in his courting for his master the card, that the hero is weak in the hand of his wife ... (Hercules is weak against Dianeira) ... as he in the whole poem constantly repeats, that women are better than men ...

Eleanor is a late girl for a marriage, why? Perhaps there is a context to Boiardo's specific male/female painting in the poem .. perhaps she's a proud girl with own decision, that even her father couldn't command her?
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Interesting questions and thankfully retiring...


to digest.

The Arthurian theme is quite Ferrarese and for the D'Estensi family... something likely continued from Marquis Niccolo, (Ercole's Father) or through Borso...so the point of such an Arthurian theme being prominent after Ercole becoming Duke is well taken!

From the bits I have read, it seems the choice of Eleonora (spelling from Thomas Tuohy) was rather an interestingly devious choice of Ercole.
But Ercole was considered devious by historians; by 1473 he had decided to provide heirs to Ferarra through the marriage to the daughter of his loathed childhood companion Ferrando...the choice seems to be Ercole continuing an Estensi history of marriage linking to the Naples family (Recall Leonello and Borso and links with the King Alfonso). This is said to have 'betrayed the Venetians and papal supporters' that helped him secure in his inheritance. Also, his betrayal by this marriage is said to have led to war of Ferrara in 1482-84...Ferrara was supposed to have been saved by Pope Sixtus IV who decided that Venice would become too powerful if he led the Venetians win Ferarra.

Machiavelli might have modelled a 'chapter 18' mention of "The Prince" after the deviousness of Ercole.

Interesting, as the few historians I've read seem to find Eleonora a fitting and
even closely-respected companion to Ercole, even with Ercole's relatively few
known affairs outside his marriage. It was Eleonora who was trusted and ruled during Ercole's absences...and during various accounts of skirmishes, she emerges as a strong woman..

I wonder if the poem is from a more transitional, perhaps a small development of the grand themes that would play out in Boiardo's inventions later--and if it is considered more of a game that would have taken place with the jousts and other amusements at some festivity that would honor Eleonora.

Now you have me curious about this very vital Duchess...before this, she was little more than that of a mother of two magnificently diverse sisters and slightly less interesting to me brother....

Regards,

Cerulean
Top   #20
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