18 figures / neuf preux & neuf preuse


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18 figures / neuf preux & neuf preuse


In the Boiardo thread we discuss a relation between the "neuf preux & neuf preuse" in the castle of the Saluzzo family in Manta (made ca. 1418 - 1430 after the Marchese Tommaso of Saluzzo - died 1416 - wrote a work "chevalier errant") and the Boiardo deck.

I made some basic research to the object "neuf preux & neuf preuse" in the web. This both pages are informative:

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neuf_Preux
French Wikipedia-article

http://clio.revues.org/document1400.html
about Penthisilea (carpet-motif) of 16th century, but includes this good passage about the female parts (which were added later, after the male group already existed at the begin of 14th century):

Quote:
"Le créateur de ce groupe de guerrières est sans doute Jehan Le Fèvre, officier au Parlement de Paris et auteur renommé en son temps, qui compose entre 1373 et 1387 le Livre de Lëesce, pour prendre la défense des femmes. "Dame Lëesce, personnification de la Joie, prend la parole pour défendre les femmes contre les auteurs misogynes qui multiplient leurs critiques. À celles-ci, elle oppose un véritable catalogue de femmes vertueuses, « les preudes femmes » mais aussi de femmes courageuses groupées sous la vertu de « prouesce », car elle assure que les femmes sont plus audacieuses, courageuses et vertueuses que les hommes. Pour choisir ses héroïnes, Jehan Le Fèvre s’est sans doute inspiré de romans antiques et en particulier de L’histoire ancienne jusqu’à César, une compilation d’histoire, écrite à partir de textes antiques et bibliques à la cour des châtelains de Lille au début du XIIIe siècle par un clerc anonyme. Elle présente une version courtoise et chevaleresque de l’histoire et de la mythologie antique, mettant en avant les personnages des Amazones. Eustache Deschamps reprend rapidement le motif des Neuf Preuses dans deux ballades, Il est temps de faire la paix, composée en 1387 et en 13969 un autre poème au titre révélateur Si les héros revenaient sur terre ils seraient étonnés. Christine de Pizan évoque sept des neuf preuses dans son catalogue de femmes illustres du Livre de la Cité des Dames. Dans son Livre du chevalier errant, Thomas III de Saluces évoque les Neuf Preux et les Neuf Preuses. Le thème littéraire des Neuf Preuses est illustré par Sébastien Mamerot qui compose en 1460 pour Louis de Laval, dont il est le chapelain, une Histoire des Neuf Preux et Neuf Preuses.
À l’instar de leurs pairs, les Neuf Preuses connaissent un immense succès qui trouve sa meilleure expression dans les représentations figurées. La tapisserie, art aristocratique par excellence, multiplie leurs images. Elles sont aussi présentes en sculpture. La première représentation de ce thème iconographique se trouve au château de Coucy. Une salle des Neuf Preuses y côtoie celle des Preux. Elle tient son nom d’une cheminée monumentale aménagée sous Enguerrand VII de Coucy vers 1387 et décorée des statues des neuf héroïnes13. Plus grandes que nature, ces statues, aujourd’hui disparues, ont été dessinées au XVIe siècle par Androuet du Cerceau et publiées dans ses Plus excellents bastiments de France. Les Preuses y ont déjà l’allure martiale de guerrières qu’elles vont conserver tout au long du Moyen Âge. Louis d’Orléans fait élever des statues monumentales des Preuses sur la façade de son château de La Ferté-Milon (Aisne), construite entre 1399 et son assassinat en 1407. Il existait également une cheminée sculptée des Preuses au château de Pierrefonds, construit sous l’égide de Louis d’Orléans à partir de 1396, mais totalement reconstruit par Viollet-le-Duc au XIXe siècle15. Les Preux et les Preuses sont également représentés dans le manuscrit enluminé du Chevalier errant de Thomas III de Saluces conservé à la Bibliothèque nationale : les Preuses y sont figurées suivant le canon habituel, richement vêtues, et armées de lances, épées et hallebardes. Valerano, fils bâtard de Thomas III de Saluces, suit la tradition familiale en faisant décorer entre 1411 et 1440 les murs Nord et Ouest de la grande salle de son château de la Manta d’une représentation des Neuf Preux et des Neuf Preuses, inspirée du roman de son père."
Here are some links to the castle of Manta:

http://www.italymag.co.uk/italy_regi...ions-end-2009/
Restauration of Manta Castle till 2009

http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valerano_di_Saluzzo
Valerano di Saluzzo, illegitime son of Tommaso, reigned for his nephew Ludovivo, died 1443, commissioned the Manta castle pictures

http://www.uni-protokolle.de/nachrichten/id/26619/
Dissertation to the Roman in context to the Manta castle pictures (German language)

I extracted some data and sorted them in a time table, to have a better overview:

Male figures:

1310 - 1312: "Le motif des Neuf Preux apparaît pour la première fois dans Les Vœux du paon[1], roman en vers composé par Jacques de Longuyon qui sert de base à une mise en scène festive à Arras vers 1312"
"Jacques de Longuyon of Lorraine is the author of a chanson de geste, Les Voeux du paon (The Vows of the Peacock), written for Thibaut de Bar, bishop of Liège in 1312. It was one of the most popular romances of the 14th century, and introduces the concept of the Nine Worthies."

According to a note, captured somewhere (not necessarily true): "The hero of the poem is described as being more courageous than the nine great heroes of history". - so, according to the logic, somehow a tenth hero is involved.

http://www.artfact.com/catalog/viewL...tCode=w6JHQfN1
gives some data to an edition sold by Sotheby's; the major story is about Alexander, the heroes are somehow mentioned.



Female figures:

Probable source for the 9 female figures (which are in their composition not similar stable as the 9 male figures): Jehan Le Fèvre, wrote 1373 - 1387) in "Livre de Lëesce"
; also Eustache Deschamps (ca. 1345 - 1405); Boccacchio in "De claris mulieribus"


Timetable
#######



late 14th century: 9 male sculptures at Saal of the Hanse, city council Cologne



1385-1396: Der "schöne Brunnen" in Nurremberg, shows 40 figures between them the 9 heroes. It's arranged in 4 stages: 1. Philosophy and 7 artes, 2. 4 evangelists and 4 fathers of the church, 3. 9 heroes and 7 Kurfürsten, 4. Moses and 7 prophets

(it's indicated, that there are other representations in other German cities of the time)

1387 "le thème apparaît en ornement sur des cheminées monumentales du château de Coucy"

1389: "un tapissier arriégeois, Jacques Dourdin, réalise un «grand tapis des Neuf Preux et Neuf Preuses » pour le duc de Bourgogne, Philippe le Hardi


1393: "Charles VI de France avait fait construire le château de Pierrefonds dont les neufs tours portaient chacune le nom d'un preux"
It has an "salle des preux" (no date)

1395-96: Chevalier errant written in prison by Tommaso di Saluzzo (rewritten ca. 1403-04 ?, realised by his illegimate son in Castle of Manta 1418 - 1430)
begin 15th century: "sur la façade du château de La Ferté-Milon". The chateau was made on the initiative of Louis d'Orleans.

1399: "le duc [de Bourgogne] se procure une autre tapisserie sur le même sujet au près du tapissier parisien Jean de Beaumetz"

Tapestry in New York Museum, likely from duke de Berry http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/medny/albertini3.html

15th century: rediscovered Fresco in chateaux of Villa Castelnuovo near Turin
http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Il_cicl...la_Castelnuovo

1407 (?): "Christine de Pisan mentionne sept preuses dans son catalogue de femmes illustres, La Cité des Dames"
Christine de Pisan uses only 7 preuse

ca. 1410: Lüneburg, Germany, window of glass with 9 heroes-cycle

1431: Part of Festivity arrangement (part of a triumphal march ?): Henri VI of England in Paris
1444: Part of Festivity arrangement: Jean de Heinsberg at Liège de
1458: Part of Festivity arrangement: Marie d'Albret at Nevers
ca. 1460: "Dans les années 1460, Sébastien Mamerot compose une Histoire des Neuf Preus et des Neuf Preues pour le gouverneur du Dauphiné, Louis de Laval"
1478: Misery (Switzerland), Herrensitz with Frescoes
1485: Festivity arrangement Charles VIII of France at Rouen
1496: Festivity arrangement: Jeanne de Castille at Bruxelles

1516: Hans Burgmair, copperplate engraving
see:
http://trionfi.com/0/i/c/OM/
left navigation, press 18 heroes

ca. 1550: Virgil Solis, copperplate engraving

unknown: combination of "les armes des preux dans un armorial de la Toison d'Or"

a further note: the 9 preuse had been somewhat floating (not always the same persons), in later variants Jean d'Arc was taken as a 10th preuse.

##############

Summarizing:

The entry of 1310 - 1312 might be well near to the place of origin. Liege (Belgium) is about 100 km of Aachen (place of Charlemain) and about 100 km of Antwerpen (place of Gottfried of Bouillon) ... so the whole is made with "local interest".
Parallel in time in France King Phillippe attacked the Templers (since 1307), in other words the "crusaders". The whole system looks in the context like a defense of the crusaders (so the Templers), so somehow it's not likely, that the system was made in France. The dedicated bishop of Liege Theobald (or Thibaut de Bar) is connected to the German king and emperor Henry (1308 - 1313), whose major work was a journey to Italy (where he died). Thibaut de Bar also died on this journey, accompanying the king.

King Henry came from Luxembourg and from him resulted the Luxembourgian dinasty with German Kings and Emperors from 1346 - 1437, which ruled, although coming from the West of the Empire (with French contacts) from the East of the Empire (mainly Prague).
From this region (Prague) we recently explored, that there were very early playing cards (ca. 1340), although there are not much trustable notes in other parts of Europe.

http://trionfi.com/0/p/95/

Between 1376 - 1378 Emperor Charles IV made 2 journeys tro the West, also to Paris. This is just the time, when playing cards became generally popular and this coincidence doesn't look accidently. Perhaps we have to add to this influences of Emperor Charles IV. also the neuf preux (but not the neuf preuse).
This would make the early appearances of the neuf preux (not the preuse) in German cities plausible. Also it's plausible, that Burgundy, near to the Eastern border of France and Germany first took the influence in France.

It's interesting, that the French idea with the neuf preuse were ready in 1387
(Livre des Leesce). This is about the time, when the French princes were ready to marry, Isabella of Bavaria and Valentina Visconti.

Unluckily I don't found much biography (or location) about this author Le Fevre, who must be differentiated from a later chronicler of Burgund with the same name.
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I found in an early bibliography the interesting fact, that the neuf preux were in the time of early printing adressed as "Triumphs"


A General Bibliographical Dictionary (1837)
By Friedrich Adolf Ebert, Arthur Browne

http://books.google.com/books?id=WhA...aR0#PPA1914,M1

Quote:
TRIUMPHE (le) des neuf preux, auquel sont contenus tous les faits et prouesses quilz ont acheuez durant leurs vies, avec lystoire de Bertrand de Guesclin.
Abbeville, Pt. Gerard, le pénultième
jour de May 1487. fol. Gothic
letter.
The first edition, extremely scarce. It
begins with 12 leaves of preliminary matter (title and table), the text contains the signatures
A-LL, of 8 leaves each, except the
signatures /, N, S, H1I, and LL, which
have 6 leaves, and signature Z which has
ID. The signatures R and S are both
twice inserted, one under the other. At
the beginning of the text is a woodcut
representing the 9 worthies.

23128 —le triumphe des neuf preux,
auquel sont contenus tous les faits
et prouesses quilz ont acheuez durant
leurs vies, avec lystoire de
Bertrand de Guesclin. Par., Mch.
le Noir, 3 Dec. 1507. fol. Gothic
letter, with woodcuts.
Likewise scarce and sought after (loi. ios.
Roxburghe, 61. 6s. Marlborough). First
8 leaves of preliminary matter, then follows
the text, with the signatures Ai—Kiiij,
without numbering of the leaves. At the
end is the printer Lenoir's symbol on a
single leaf.

23129 — chronica llamada el trium-
pho de los nueve mas preciados varones
de la fama, traducida en castellano
por Ant. Rodriguez Portugal.
Barcelona, Bths. Simón, 1586.
fol.

TRIUMPHUS, see AUGUSTINUS.

23130 TRIUMPHUS imp. Caroli V.
Norimb., excud. J. Guldenmund,
1537. fol.
lu the Ducal library at Wolfenbüttel is
a copy on vellum, which consists of nine
sheets, glued together. This costly work
of woodcuts has no title, consequently I
have made the above myself. On the outside
there is written in an old hand, Triumphwagen
Kaiser Caroli V. Over the figures
is a short text printed in Latin.
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I found these pictures as belonging to a recent exhibition in New York. The source is said to be an early edition of Jacques de Longuyon. Vows of the Peacock (c. 1350)

Five field-chess






From
http://arttattler.com/archivemedievalfashion.html
http://artmuseumjournal.com/illuminating_fashion.aspx

It seems, that this description of an auction belongs to the item.

http://www.artfact.com/auction-lot/j...1-c-6w0p55gpas

Has anybody more pictures or information to this edition?
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Jean Brisebarre, "Li restor du paon"
by Enid Donkin (1980)

http://books.google.com/books?id=BXI3ZRnn-mEC&pg=PA1

... gives in its introduction a good overview about the position of Jacques Longuyon and his "Les Voeux du paon" (The Vows of the Peacock).







********

Also it gives a rudimentary description of the peacock-cycle







********

There is also a literary "Vow cycle", to which the "Les Voeux des Paon" belongs.
Compare the short report at ...
http://www.bookrags.com/tandf/vow-cycle-tf/

1.
"Les Voeux de Paon"
written by Jacques de Longuyon rather precisely 1312 in commission of Thibault, bishop of Liege. A first known copy was sold 1313.

Thibault worked for Henry VII, German Emperor (1308-1313), the first emperor of the dynasty of the Luxembourger on the throne (the Luxembouger had some enduring dominance in the German Emipre - with interruptions 1314-1346 and 1400-1410 - till 1437). Henry became German King and started an expedition to Italy in 1311 to get the Emperor title (the first German king since 1250 and Frederick II, who attempted to do so). His brother Walram died, his wife died, Bishop Thibault died and finally the Emperor, just crowned as such, died also during this escapade in 1313.
The text and intentions of the "Voeux de Paon" are only understandable, if one knows the background. Naturally Henry attempted to reign a very long time, but it didn't work out.

2.
"Les Voeux de Epervier" (The vows of the sparrowhawk)

This appeared as a single-copy-work under the protection of Balduin, archbishop of Trier (Treves), who worked politically for a reestablishment of the Luxembourg dynasty, in the time before this goal was achieved (success was reached in 1346; the text was likely written before 1326, the illumination was done likely later; the intention of Balduin was rather obviously to promote the interests of the house of Luxembourg, and also, to show Balduin's own heroic works as a smaller part.

Balduin himself had participated 1312 in the crowning ceremony of Henry II, but returned back before the emperor died. This appears in the text and the many pictures ...

see interactive exhibition
http://www.landeshauptarchiv.de/file...win_start.html

Picture Nr. 13 (lower part)
Balduin (recognizable by his heraldic) kills a member of the Orsini family in battle, by cutting the helmet and head of his opponent)


Picture Nr. 16
Balduin returns back via Genova after a tournament in Pisa ...


3.
"Les Voeux de Heron" (The vows of the sparrowhawk)
According the quoted website:
Quote:
The Vœux du héron (ca. 1340) purports to dramatize in 422 rhymed Alexandrines an event in 1338 that led to the Hundred Years’ War. Robert d’Artois has been banished from France by Philippe de Valois, who also imprisoned his family. Robert publicly labels Edward III of England a coward for failing to maintain control over France and instigates a vowing session in which the English king promises to invade France and renounce the treaty he had concluded in his naive youth. The bird chosen to be honored is the heron, the symbol of cowardice, captured by Robert to antagonize Edward.
A similar description is found here:
http://books.google.com/books?id=OQV0bHu8td0C&pg=PA190

The French provocation (was it French or English ? ... it seems to a French provocation, but this is possibly differently interpreted) took a rather bad course with the famous battle of Crecy 1346 ...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cr%C3%A9cy
... where a big French army together with a Luxembourg party took a devastating defeat against a smaller English army with longbow archers. John the Blind (son of the earlier Emperor Henry VII.) of Luxembourg became victim in the battle, but his son could establish himself as Charles IV, counter-king in Germany and later emperor, in the same year.

4. "Vœux du faisan"
This was a much later take on the earlier custom - 1 year after the 100-years war had been ended. Philipp the good of Burgund - under the impression of the fall of Constantinople 1453 - in 1454 organized a great festivity with "triumphal elements" and big shows with the intention to urge some nobility to give military help for a crusade.

In the following political reality a crusade took place indeed in 1456, however, Burgundian nobility didn't play a greater role.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_o...ade_%281456%29
Burgundy found it more interesting to collect its valuable army for inner European fights, with France, in Germany and against Switzerland ... the latter fight became a rather bad decision in January 1477.

The literary description of the feast became part of the Trionfi festivities literature.

***********

Some elements are clear in matters of the "Vow of the pheasant":

1. The pheasant is a symbol for "Persia"

2. The story plays in Persia

3. Alexander, major hero in the poem, took Persia

4. Persia was seen as the mother country of Chess

5. Chess was VERY Popular in 1312

6. Chess appears in the poem

... as Alexander had victory against the Persians
... so Alexander should have been a good Chess player, as Chess is a game of war ... :-)


The picture shows "Fesonas and Cassiel the Baudrain". Fesonas (left player) is female.

********

What ... damn ... isn't clear (at least to me): Where is this original passage of Longuyon with the nine Worthies in Internet? I search and search ... :-(

It should be in the lines 3843 - 4357, I've read somewhere. They appear "in a dream of Fortune", in the case, that I understood this correctly.
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