Toscanelli / Regiomontanus (Charles VI)


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Toscanelli / Regiomontanus (Charles VI)



http://www.christopher-columbus.ch/teil_5.htm
Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli, Fresko von
G. Vasari, Palazzo Vecchio, Florenz

Toscanelli (right), Ficino (left) (by Vasari)
Some seem to think, that Toscanelli is the left person, but Toscanelli was much older than Ficino - Vasari should have known this.



Toscanelli, modern artwork



Toscanelli, (scholar portrait, 16th/17 century)



Toscanelli



Regiomontanus ca. 1490. He's always shown with specific turban.



Regiomontanus



Regiomontanus




Charles VI Tarot card Moon

****************

Toscanelli more or less lived all the time in Florence.

He's called a mathematican, cosmographer and astronom.
He made observations for comets in 1433, 1449/50, 1P/Halley 1456K1, 1457 I und II und 1472, which didn't reach great public. His opinion was well respected by Cusanus and Alberti.

Regiomontanus, famous (young) astronomer, came to Italy in 1461 on the invitation of Bessarion. He stayed here till ca. 1468. He returned 1475 and died 1476 in Rome. Naturally he also had contact to Toscanelli, how intensive, that is hard to say. Likely they did first met in the period 1461 - 1464 (Regiomontanus lived in Rome, but made journeys). Regiomontanus already had a name then, especially as his teacher, Peurbach, had impressed Italians already between 1448 - 1450.

Toscanelli, born 1497, was then already rather old. He reached a very high age with 85 years and died 1482. Regiomontanus was born 1436, 39 years younger than Toscanelli.
Naturally it should have been a Florentian interest to make Regiomontanus look as a pupil of Toscanelli.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regiomontanus

From http://www.1421.tv/pages/evidence/co...EvidenceID=463
(this source suggests, that Toscanelli had Chinese inspirations)

Quote:
"Toscanelli predicted and made accurate observations on Halley’s comet, which passed by the earth between 8 June and 8 July 1456." ...

“The only piece of his own that we have is his computation of the comet of 1460. It is an excellent computation, as Celoria has shown, and agrees with the figures of Regiomontanus quite perfectly,” says Girogo de Santillan. ...

"Still, he was widely acknowledged as the most distinguished astronomer of the 15th century in Europe. Much of his fame came from a monument to his astronomical skill that still exists at the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Flore in Florence in the well-known gnome, which he constructed about 1468. A marble slab, having a small opening in it was placed at the height of 277 feet in the dome over the middle of the left transept. By the shadow Toscanelli can determine midday to a half-second and could accurately determine when the sun was as its maximum height. (When the sun’s shadow is at it’s shortest)."

"Toscanelli’s friend, Regiomontanus was himself a great admirer of Toscanell. In a correspondence to Toscanelli, Regiomontanus even called him as a “second Archimedes”."
Alexander von Humboldt: "Paolo Toscanelli was so distinguished as an astronomer, that Regiomontanus, the teacher of Martin of Bohemia, in 1463 dedicated his work, de Quadratura Circuit, directed against the Cardinal Nicholas de Cusa, to him."
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Wonderful link on 1421- the Papal visit by the Chinese Ambassador Huck!
Regardless of who the red hooded Guy is (I had thought it was Marsilio Ficino...Maybe he is the Hermit?) either Toscanelli or Peurbach- the other guy looks like Regiomontanus with his distinctive headgear- the card could not have been created before 1461? ~Rosanne
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Rosanne
Wonderful link on 1421- the Papal visit by the Chinese Ambassador Huck!
Regardless of who the red hooded Guy is (I had thought it was Marsilio Ficino...Maybe he is the Hermit?) either Toscanelli or Peurbach- the other guy looks like Regiomontanus with his distinctive headgear- the card could not have been created before 1461? ~Rosanne
Yes, ... NOT before 1461 and likely a little later.

We've 1450 likely a Trionfi deck production in Florence, we may conclude this from the allowance. 1450 was a year of festivities ... we've a trinofi card production in Siena, rather likely to the first meeting between emperor-bride and emperor.

Then war returned.

We don't know, if this Trionfi interest developed in Florence in the following years, we've only strong confirmations from Ferrara. Even the Milanese interest might have stayed small .... just cause missing informations.

Ferrara has an increased production in 1454, either stimulated by the peace of Lodi or by the projected marriage between Beatrice d'Este and Tristano Sforza (an illegitime older son of Francesco Sforza). So Ferrara possibly showed an interest to export their mental product and their culture to Milan (which wouldn't have been a great hit, if Milan was already full of it). Trotti 1456 tells, that Trionfi is the card game. Which somehow might indicate, hat Ferrarese people knew and believed, but that this was not everywhere believed and known.
1457 Galleazzo Maria, 13 years old, visited Ferrara for a two-month-stay (as his mother had visited Ferrara with 16 years). Again: as for Bianca Maria at 1.1.1441 also in 1457 cards are produced specifically for this visit and we're told, that each deck had 70 cards (thiese cards are the most expensive production in this time; 11 Lira, about 250 % of the usual price.

During the time of the visit the painter (on old man) is paid for painting material, the new painter (only for this opportunity) is a page (perhaps a young men near to Galeazzo Maria's age) and it seems, that it is tried to form a deck according Gallezzo Maria's taste in happy company with some fun around this activity (perhaps this was similar to that, what happened in October till December 1440, before Bianca Maria got her object, 14 paintings, likely playing cards).

This activity also seems to show, that Milan hadn't this great playing card culture. Ferrara had this cultural merit. And from Florence we don't know anything in matters Trionfi cards. They made Johannes-the-baptist festivities.

Something must have happened in 1463 or short before. The allowance for Trionfi cards is repeated, now are included two other games, Ronfa and Cricca.

That's the first, that we know about Ronfa in Italy, but the game name is known from very early in the century in France (Ronfle in Godefroy's dictionary is from 1414):

http://trionfi.com/0/p/19/

In this context we've the following:

1461: Louis XI becomes king of France and Florence hopes to have good connections to him (better as the connections to his father)
1461 (same year): Pulci starts the Morgante, invited to the theme by Lorenzo de Medici's mother. The Orlando-stuff is French content, Lorenzo likely wishes to get merits for French culture in Italy.
May 1465: the operations to get influence and good relations with the French succeeded (especially cause of financial help in an inner-France conflict). The Medici are allowed to get the French fleurs-de-lys in their shield.

The ronfa allowance might be part of the Medici Pro-France politic.

What "Ronfa" really means, stays unclear, also what "Crice" means. It seems, that Ronfa had something to do with "4-of-a-kind" or card combinations and crica something with sequences (so ronfa with the horizontal lines in the matrix-deck and sequences with the vertical lines). It might be, that the Trionfi-game-rules were mixed with card-combinations rules, which we find especially strong considered in late Minchiate-rules.

... so their is a renewed interest. It might be, that the villa of Careggi played a specific role. Cosimo sponsored a home for the philosophical interests just in 1463.
It might be, that the philosophical heads not only were engaged in difficult talkings, but also found it amusing to be occasionally engaged in relaxing games.

Meanwhile Pulci had formed the first half of his Morgante ... likely accompanied by the young Lorenzo de Medici in the forests of the Mugello. All the 3 heads of the Medici were sick ... and Lorenzo was the future. And Lorenzo was in the right age for playing cards. The men in the Villa Careggi surely also had some realism on the future developments in their city, and their own social role, which depended on sponsoring. Lorenzo was important
....

Something was formed in Florence. Possibly the Charles VI deck, maybe around this time ... or later.
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http://www.openlibrary.org/details/l...medi00rossuoft

Luigi Pulci to Lorenzo De Medici
Quote:
"Ardito will have given thee my letter from Sabina. From thence we went for some days to Monte Rotondo, and were received with much honour. Yesterday we entered Rome in pomp with about eighty horses. Our Madonna Clarice does thee great honour everywhere, and much is paid to her. In two days I shall return to the Marches, and then to thee. According to my idea the stay here will be short - for as thou know the wedding is put off. In this case we only lose time and reputation, besides which Lucrezina and Pierino draw us back to them like magnets. Thou wouldst do well to advise a quick return. Whenever great personages, men or women, stay for long in one place they are pestered and taken as targets.

Besides, some of us will be useful to thee for the feast of San Giovanni ; more than a year has paused since the last, and I know that without us things will lag. Enough that if I have the hope that as usual festaimoli are to be appointed. I shall whisper something into the ear of one of them that will delight him. I rather wonder at thy letting this feast pass with so little recognition, being so good a citizen and lover of thy country, whose protector is S. Giovanni ; we should therefore do him honour. If by any mischance we are not back in time, thou wilt see how ill they get on without us. I have said enough to be understood, believe in one who has sharp eyes and can speak the truth. Send for us.

We take the road by Siena, and should look out for falls, but at last we shall arrive triumphantly.

Today there is strange news from Volterra. They say H.M. the King (of Naples) has sent word to the Count of Urbino that he is to march and do what he can. All the follies I said unfortunately turn out to be prophecies. Now act that things may go well. Monsignor of Pavia speaks only of thee. If I understand anything he is thy true friend. No More. Farewell - Rome, May 6, 1472

Thy Luigi Pulci"
Luigi Pulci was send to Rome in 1472 with a delegation of about 80 persons to accompany the wife of Lorenzo, who wished to participate at a wedding of a relative. Beside other things this did lead to meating with the future wife of the Zar of Russia.

The important note in this letter is the passage about the feast of Giovanni. Luigi believes - with right (?) - that he is personally important for the festivity. Lorenzo is criticised in the letter as too desinterested at this festivity. Actually there was a festivity season, which started 1st of May and endured till its height with the feast of Giovanni (24th of June), so a period with "good weather" (after it the climate likely was too hot and rich people prefered the stay outside of the city).
Lorenzo de Medici is said to have reduced the direct Giovanni festivities and the number of the participating edificii (the more religious parts) ... generally Lorenzo is said to have inctreased the number of festivities.

The Pulci family, which had 4 poets of some name (3 brothers and the wife of of one of the brothers), created religious plays, as did Lucrezia Turnuobuoni, the mother of Lorenzo de Medici (especially Bernabo Pulci and Antonia Pulci, who should have married ca. 1470; so this poet pair were still at its poetical begin in 1472, in need for some help of the elder and more experienced brother and brother-in-law).

http://home.infionline.net/~ddisse/pulci.html
http://trionfi.com/0/g/12/t.html

It's said, that the number of edificii was 22 in 1454 and reduced to 10 in 1470. (? I've trouble with the source for this).

With the time the edificii mutated partly from religious to worldly or pagan.

......

From this specialities we should have a view on a trionfo in 1465 (I've trouble with the source) about the 3 magi ... despite my trouble, it's obvious, that Gozzoli painted his great work in the Medici chapel at ... here things are not clear, the largest range of of production time would be 1458 - 1464 ... and proved, that the Medici had a great engagement for this 3 figures - in the relevant time.
A banker, who worked in Milan for the Medici, engaged for the church, were the bones of the Magi once had been, before they went to Cologne. It seems obvious, that the interest in these figures were great in Florence.

Now is one of the magi a black, moorish magi ... it seems natural to assume, that the three magi, who once searched a star, where associated to a sun-moon-star composition, cause the black magi naturally associated "night" and therefore the moon. From the bones it was known, that the magi should have been a young (ca. 15 years-old), a middle-aged (30-years-old) and and an old man (ca. 60 years old) ... Gozzoli painted a young man as one of the magi, he knew this interpretation.

The middle king is a little darker in the face than the other figures, he's not directly moorish, but dark enough to recognize, that Gozzoli followed the common iconographical idea (it's said, that his face was that of the emperor of Constantinople, who was in Florence at the council 1439, so a total moorish expression would have been a little disturbing; generally not all representations of the 3 magi adapted the "black" motif for the second king).



See more:

http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/htm...agi/index.html

The Tarot cards of the Charles VI. and also other old decks never adapted the 3 magi in concrete way, at least I don't know one.
The Charles VI sun shows "a woman who, with disheveled hair as a sign of her innocence and virginity, is spinning wool in the midst of a meadow". From the Charles VI alone this wool-spinning virgin is difficult to recognize, but other representations of Bolognese decks make this interpretation unavoidable. From the Charles VI alone it might be Diane with an arrow, although one feels confused that Diana, the moon-godddess, should be on the sun-card ... :-)

Actually the richdom of Florence was based on its textil industry and on the production of fine clothes. Silk-weaving was great and Cosimo brought tapestry production to Italy, inviting artists from Burgund.



****

If we assume, that the Charles VI deck was from Florence and the both motifs for sun and moon was born here (they don't appear in the Visconti-Sforza decks), then these objects make some advertisement for science from Florence (Toscanelli) and the textile industry.
The d'Este cards have astronomers for the star and another one for the moon. The sun card is filled with Diogenes and Alexander.



This is given as Ptolemy (from Montefeltro/Urbino, 28 famous men ?)



And this somehow similar figure uses the same or a similar three-dimensional astronomical instrument.

In contrast these two on the Este star card somehow don't want to show, who they are (one shows the back). The fingers of their crossing hands point to different directions to show their confusion.





Is this one face somehow known?



And their instrument is primitive, 2-dimensional.

So the d'Este cards somehow wish to point in their star and moon cards on the astronomical progress and the refinement of the instruments.

Perhaps they do see a triade of astrological methodes (old) and (new) astronomical methodes together with a general philosophy (for the sun), somehow reducing the seven artes to the highest worth (astronomy) and favoring the higher value philosophy, in which they use the rather contrasting Diogenes (perhaps they did read too much Lucian) and demonstrating their sense for the comical element (which they lived with their invention of comedies to the just-born theatre.



They're able to have a little self-irony, which generally should develop with comedy ... that signalizes considerable mental progress, one should say and that indicates steps, which were done by Alberti with his Momo (1443 1450), Pulci with his Morgante (1461 - 1482) and Boiardo with his Orlando Innamorato (1475 - 1494).
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Ha! That may well explain the so called Lovers card of the Charles V1 cards! The Nuptial numbers of Plato. I have often wondered why it was different- maybe the talks at Careggi Villa- so he got (Ficino) the villa then in 1462- later Lorenzo helped with Gardens I believe.
Have just read your last post and that two dimensional device may well be Marsilio Ficino's regulus. He was credited with inventing it- but that is not so as it was seen before, maybe a hundred years before.
It is like a detective story these cards and Florence and the Fleur de lis- like on the Emperor's Crown.Maybe this is why the cards look Pagan and Christian at the same time- a result of the Renaissance Platonic revival at the Academy of Florence (the Villa)?
Wonderful information Huck, Thank you
~Rosanne
PS The three Magi -I wonder about the King/Page /Knight of Cups. In other decks like Spanish Tdm's there is an Eastern look to these Courts.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Rosanne
Ha! That may well explain the so called Lovers card of the Charles V1 cards! The Nuptial numbers of Plato. I have often wondered why it was different- maybe the talks at Careggi Villa- so he got (Ficino) the villa then in 1462- later Lorenzo helped with Gardens I believe.
Have just read your last post and that two dimensional device may well be Marsilio Ficino's regulus. He was credited with inventing it- but that is not so as it was seen before, maybe a hundred years before.
It is like a detective story these cards and Florence and the Fleur de lis- like on the Emperor's Crown.Maybe this is why the cards look Pagan and Christian at the same time- a result of the Renaissance Platonic revival at the Academy of Florence (the Villa)?
Wonderful information Huck, Thank you
~Rosanne
PS The three Magi -I wonder about the King/Page /Knight of Cups. In other decks like Spanish Tdm's there is an Eastern look to these Courts.
Detective story is the right expression ... always a lot of persons "under suspicion" to have done something ... :-)

We have always focussed on the trumps, not on the study of the pips. Perhaps new dimensions are opened, when these are evaluated in the total consideration. But for TdMs there is the problem that they are (likely) too young.
Actually the mind is filled with much data with this Tarot topic and it is difficult to keep things in order in the own mind.
So the methode of Trionfi.com was from beginning on, to develop the ideas from the begin and throwing "known data of later time" out of the thinking process to keep the concentration on that, what really was there in a given moment - and to proceed very slowly in the considered time.

Careggi ...



... not so impressive at first view.

But a nice garden ...



Wikipedia tell us:

"Like most villas of Florentine families, the villa remained a working farm that helped render the family self-sufficient. Cosimo's architect there, as elsewhere, was Michelozzo, who remodelled the fortified villa which had something of the character of a castello. "

It was "fortified", so much one has to add to its appearance.

"Its famous garden is walled about, like a medieval garden, overlooked by the upper-storey loggias, with which Michelozzo cautiously opened up the villa's structure. Michelozzo's Villa Medici in Fiesole has a more outward-looking, Renaissance character.
The property was purchased in 1417. At the death of Giovanni di Bicci, Cosimo il Vecchio set about remodelling the beloved villa around its loggia-enclosed central courtyard. His nephew Lorenzo extended the terraced gardens and the shaded boschi.

Marsilio Ficino, who died at the villa in 1499, was a central member of the academy. Lorenzo de' Medici died at the villa in 1492, after which it was ignored for a time .... "

... the Medici-possessions were plundered in 1494 and the Medici were expelled, at least one branch of the family.

In Florence the Rucellai garden had also some importance, likely following in their function the earlier Medici dominance. The host was Bernardo Rucellai:

"And our Bernardo, who stands out more prominently than the rest on this purple back-ground, had added all sorts of distinction to the family name: he had married the sister of Lorenzo de' Medici, and had had the most splendid wedding in the memory of Florentine upholstery; and for these and other virtues he had been sent on embassies to France and Venice, and had been chosen Gonfaloniere; he had not only built himself a fine palace, but had finished putting the black and white marble facade to the church of Santa Maria Novella ; he had planted a garden with rare trees, and had made it classic ground by receiving within it the meetings of the Platonic Academy, orphaned by the death of Lorenzo ; he had written an excellent, learned book, of a new topographical sort, about ancient Rome; he had collected antiquities ; he had a pure Latinity."

http://books.google.com/books?id=KlU...N5D26wKQ6MGVBg

It's said, that Cosimo di Medici died in Careggi (1464), that Lorenzo died here (1492) and that Ficino died here (1499).

The distance - always of importance to understand something - is about of 7 km of Florence cities. So guests needn't to stay over the night (a good distance for a ride on a horse, a pedestrians with some problems), but far enough to have some calm of the troubles of the cities.
In 1466 some adversaries tried to attack Piero on his way from Careggi to Florence, Lorenzo could warn him in time to take another way (famous scene).

For the 3 sick older Medici's in the early 60's it was troublesome to make the distance.
For Pulci in the Mugello the distance to Careggi was a little nearer than to Florence. Cosimo died there, so Ficino and the platonical academy (as far as it existed) was "for Cosimo" one could judge. Pietro spared money ... this was risky and let to rebellion. One doesn't hear too much of the platonic academy, although it is said, that Pietro was interested in serious talking. We cannot exspect too much of this scene.
The man or boy with the new energy is Lorenzo. And the strong woman in the household with two healthy legs to walk, Lucrezia Turnobuoni. And beside her there is her brother brother, who becomes partner of the Medici, a man in the background.

One should think, that the early Careggi-scene is idealized by the later successful and vital phase with Lorenzo.

Pietro protested against Lucrezia, that she moved responsibilitis too early to Lorenzo.

Pulci got in financial trouble in 1465 cause of his brother Luca and had to fled the city. He was rather desperated about this and wrote letters about this trouble to Lorenzo.
The idea is somehow given, that the difficulties of Luigi Pulci have a very concrete relation to the new financial course of Pietro and not only to the financial difficulties of Luca.
Pietro tried to get money back, that was credited before. A lot of people had financial trouble and that helped some persons with rebellious spirit to try to change something. A war resulted, a battle was fought. Colleoni was engaged, Ercole d'Este seriously wounded at the opponent's side, on Florentine side Montefeltro earned some of the money, by which he become rather rich. Perhaps not really necessary expenses.

It's difficult to say, what was going on in Careggi. Pietro used it ... he was on the way of Careggi, when the attack on him was projected.

Well, something in matters of playing cards had happened. Forom our site:

http://trionfi.com/0/p/09/

Quote:
1466: In an older reference it is noted, that the poet Luigi Pulci (1432 - 1484) wrote a letter to the young Lorenzo de Medici, in which the term "Minchiate" appears. Considerable research was done by Franco Pratesi to detect the original letter, however, the information was not traceable.
However, according Pratesi, "the letter was first published - as most of Pulci's letters - only in 1868 in a limited edition for a wedding by Bongi, who again published it in 1882 in a more complete and common book. The following edition has been in Morgante e Lettere by De Robertis, in 1962, reprinted with some slight revisions (which do not concern either the letter or the notes to it) in 1984. The mentioned letter appears unchanged through the different editions." The letter was written at 23rd August 1466. Franco Pratesi describes: "Pulci is passing the summer in a land possession and writes to Lorenzo that he is craving to see him again to the point that, had he only a horse, he would come there to play together at different games and win by large. The exact text of the relevant sentence is, 'Pure, se havessi cavallo, ho s¨ gran voglia di rivederti ch'io verrei cost¨ per isvisarti alle minchiate, a passadieci, a sbaraglino, come tu sai ch'io ti concio.'" The different games mentioned are Minchiate, Passadieci (different games with dice) and Sbaraglino (boardgame out of the backgammon family). Pratesi comments: "The only difficult term, from a language point of view, is the verb isvisare for svisare, meaning not only to win a match but to disfigure the face with punches. The sense is obviously metaphoric, stressing the higher level of Pulci as a player. The three mentioned games are minchiate, which needs no comment for the moment; passadieci, a common name for different games played with dice only (with the aim to or not to surpass ten), with dice and board (with the peculiarity of counting doubles twice), and perhaps even with cards; sbaraglino, a favourite boardgame of the backgammon family whose popularity lasted for several centuries. In the same letter some common programs to compose verses are also reminded. Evidently, Pulci exploited his supremacy in poetry and in games over the young Lorenzo (17 years old at the time, compared to 34 for Pulci) to continue his friendly relationships with the Medici family."
(from Franco Pratesi: Florentine Cards - New Discoveries IV, written Florence, August-October 1986, published later in the Playing Card Journal).
Pulci has no horse. That might mean, that he still has financial difficulties. But a new game called "Minchiate" was there. Perhaps a "normal" Trionfi game, just renamed. We cannot exspect "40 special cards" ... it would be to big a jump. But it seems to have been some experimentation with the cards. Not 14 ... another number.

Actually there 4 decks, which might be of interest in the Florentian development:

1. a 1450 deck
2. a deck for the emperor-meeting-the-bride-scene, 1452 (perhaps this deck came from Florence)
3. a deck in 1463, somehow causing the new law
4. the Minchiate version, before Pulci's letter

Naturally there might have been more, but what shall we consider things, of which we have not a single indication.
Naturally there might have been also less decks, for instance Nr. 3 might have been identical to Nr. 4, and Nr. 2 might have been "not from Florence" - but for instancve from Ferrara, where the emperor had been before he arrived in the Florentian-Ferrarese region.

For the Charles VI deck we have some argumentation, that this shouldn't have his production date before 1461, 1463 doesn't look unlikely.
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The following is an important quotation, for it gives evidence for the "3 magi" - festivity, which should have taken place after Cosimo's death, likely in 1465 (we have found no other note about it till now).
There is also mentioned a "tournament for Lorenzo", which according how Macchiavelli sorts his data, also should have taken place in 1465. There exist opinions, that Macchiavelli was wrong with the latter and this tournament took place in begin of 1469 and is the well known tournament, for which either Luca or Luigi Pulci or both together (Luca the begin and Luigi the rest) wrote a description (a poem). Then there is the opinion, that this tournament took not place in Florence, but in Milan. So this matter is rather contradictious.

It's true, that Lorenzo was at a tournament in Milan around this time ... but it was made for the birth of Galeazzo Maria Sforza first son.

http://books.google.com/books?id=ZJQ...#PRA1-PA130,M1

Quote:
"But while these elements of discord were fermenting in the city, those who desired to save the country from the blight of civil contention, attempted to divert the public mind by some new excitement, for an idle populace easily become the tools of those who are seeking for change. To furnish them, therefore, with an occupation, and draw off their thoughts from public men and measures, and spread a gaiety over the city, which had now been in mourning a year for the death of Cosimo, they prepared two grand festivals on the same scale of magnificence the city had been accustomed to in former times. One consisted in a drama, illustrating the coming of the wise men of the East, who followed the star to the manger in Bethlehem, and so magnificent were the preparations and performance, they occupied the whole city for several months. The other spectacle was a tournament, in which the young cavaliers of Florence challenged the most renowned knights of Italy. Of all the cavaliers in the tournament, Lorenzo de' Medici bore off the palm—not by the favor borrowed from his name, but by dint of genuine valor.
These amusements were no sooner over than the citizens returned again to their conspiracies with greater ardor than before. Serious divisions and troubles soon followed, which were sadly aggravated by two circumstances. "
For Careggi Macchiavelli tells:

Quote:
... he (Cosimo) built private houses; one in the city worthy of such a citizen, and four in the neighborhood; at Careggi (the region of the Platon academy), Fiesole, Cafaggio (near to Pulci), and Trebbio ; all of them palaces fitter for princes, than private citizens. ... (p. 121, same source)

Cosimo was also a great friend and patron of learned men.
He first introduced into Florence Argiropolo, of the Greek
nation, and the greatest scholar of his age, to instruct the
Florentine youth in the Greek tongue and its philosophy. He
maintained Marsilio Ficino, the restorer of the Platonic philosophy,
in his own house, and had so great an esteem for
him that he gave him a house and estate near his own, at
Careggi, that he might pursue his, study of letters with less
interruption, and entertain him with his conversation in leisure
hours. (p. 124, same source)
So there are two places in Careggi. One for Ficino to study and the Careggi family palace.
Actually this reads NOT as if the Platonic academy was already founded in 1463. It reads, as if Marsilio Ficino had the job to accompany Cosimo in his last hours. Or, as if the Medici palace was not the place of the Platonic academy.

Also we would be happy, if we had the letters of Pulci to Lorenzo di Medici. This would turn matters much easier to judge.
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Rosanne 

Maybe there was only 16 trumps meant to be in these cards like the D'Este.
With all the astronmers, maybe depicted you have some sort of magic square like the melancholy of the times, Ficino's personal melancholy and the Jupiter Magic Square depicted by the 16 cards and Neo Platoism of the Academy?
8 Male(even numbers) 8 female (odd numbers) and the celebrating of a Triumph to lift the Melancholy and give a particular Ficino message at the same time for Lorenzo?
4....14....15....1 Emperor Tower Strength World
9......7.....6....12 Justice Temperance Love HangedMan
5.....11....10....8
16.....2......3....13
or some such order to fit with the theme....
Man is the greatest wonder in nature. All other things under God are always in themselves of one certain kind of being; this essence is at once all of them. It possesses in itself images of the divine things upon which it depends. It also possesses the reasons and models of the inferior things which it in a sense brings forth. Since it is the mean of all things, it possesses the powers of all; hence it transforms itself into all things. And because it is itself the true bond of the universe, in passing into some things it does not forsake the others, but enters into individual things, and at the same time preserves all things. Therefore it can with justice be called the center of nature, the middle point of all that is, the chain of the world, the face of all and the knot and bond of the universe.

THEOLOGIA PLATONICA, 1469-74

Something for Lorenzo to meditate upon when he takes up the reins of power..........but whatever- it is interesting. ~Rosanne
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