Are there prediction methods for very short period of time i.e. daily / weekly events?
Yes there are. Many Astrologers use the transits of planets to your birth chart, or the Secondary progressed Moon. If you want something that covers both long and short term you might look at Time Lord systems, such as the dasha's of Vedic Astrology, or the Firdaria of early Medieval Arabic/Persian Astrology. I use the Hellenistic method of Zodiacal Releasing which can look a a span of decades or focus down onto a day or part of a day. However, as with all forecasting systems even ones used in the sciences, the shorter the period under consideration, then more chance there is of small variations having a significant effect in the very short period but evening out in the longer period.