Trionfi in Venetian colonies


How much research has been done on trionfi in territories once controlled by Italian states during the 15-16th centuries but no longer part of modern Italy?

Here is a quote from Sabine Florence Fabijanec's article ‘Ludus zardorum: Moral and Legal Frameworks of Gambling along the Adriatic in the Middle Ages’ which is collected in At the Edge of the Law: Socially Unacceptable and Illegal Behaviour in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period.

Gambling was strictly forbidden only in Split [except during the Christmas season and Carnival], as was any kind of game of chance, but playing cards, that is “the usual card games” was allowed. In contrast, in Rijeka and its whole district, all games were forbidden in general: dice, cards and corrigaloe. But, the city acknowledged the need to play for entertainment, so three types of games were legal: ronfa and trionfa, while basseta (played for profit) was only allowed under the condition that a bet did not exceed 4 shillings and that no player was allowed to exceed the upper daily limit of bets, which was set at 6 pounds in total; the fine was 5 pounds. In Dvigrad it was apparently also forbidden to play cards and gamble; the innkeepers and their staff were authorized to keep order in their places and in the port on Lim bay; thus, they could fine individuals who played these games. In Dubrovnik, gambling and playing cards per se were not forbidden, but if games of chance included the possibility of giving something in pawn, then the people were fined who lent money to the players. In Skradin, gambling at night was punishable, but there was no special regulation of gambling during the day. In Kotor, according to the regulation of 1421, it was forbidden to play “in a cave” and in secret places and games in which someone lost while others gained, however, playing games with dice was allowed – alea, as well as “honest public games.”àr

What do we know about card games in the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik)? The only lasting influence I know of is that Greeks call playing cards "trappola" after that old Venetian game but it is a mystery as to when they acquired that name.


Thanks for the article. Fabijanec identifies trionfa with the game played with a standard deck where the trump is decided randomly. The allowance of ronfa, trionfa, and basseta comes from the Statute of Rijeka compiled in 1527. Rijeka was inherited by the Habsburgs in 1466 and the statute was confirmed by Emperor Ferdinand I in 1530. Venetians plundered and burned the city in 1509.

Here's an overview of various statutes in medieval Croatia:


Good work.

In the biography of Christopher Frangipani (the man, that I suspect to have had the deck with the Croatian flag in c1512) the year 1527 is the year, when he died. And before his death he had open fight with Habsburg. Likely it is a causal context, why Ferdinand made new statutes for Rijeka just in year 1527 (the problems with Frangipani are solved).
After the defeat of Hungary against Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Mohács (1526), the Hungarian throne again was empty with the death of Louis II. Immediately the Habsburgs reclaimed it for themselves, as a Hungarian Count, John Zápolya, also claimed his rights as husband of a Jagiellon princess.

Most of the Croatian nobility gathered in Cetin and elected Ferdinand I as king on 1 January 1527. Christoph Frankopan was the sole member of the higher Croatian nobility who did not attend.[1] The rival part of Croatian nobility, mostly from Slavonia, gathered on 6 January 1527 in Dubrava and intended to elect count John Zápolya as the king of Croatia. Eventually, both of them were crowned as Kings of Hungary, and Zápolya stayed in the royal city of Buda, as the Habsburg went back to his Austrian domains without giving up claim to the Hungarian throne.[2] Zápolya conferred to Christopher the charge of ban of Croatia and military commander of the Hungarian Kingdom, counting him as one of his closest allies. In the civil war in Croatia, between army of Zápolya and Ferdinand he fought in Slavonia against Count Francis Batthyány, who supported the Habsburg's claims. He was mortally wounded at the siege of the castle of Varaždin and soon died.

German wiki to Rijeka:
Mit der Thronbesteigung der Habsburger in Ungarn wurde Rijeka 1526 Teil der Länder der Stephanskrone.
German wiki has 1526 as the start of the reign of Habsburg in Rijeka. Christopher Frangipani died 1527, September 22.